Inundation is a pervasive problem, whether it occurs in a urban, rural, or wetland setting. Simulation of the complications recurrent flooding poses can range from large scale areas such as the entirety of Chesapeake Bay to the street-level scale of inundation observed in the Bay’s Cities from Norfolk, VA, to Washington, DC. Flooding can take the form of tidal/nuisance flooding or be more significant or prolonged if driven by tropical or extratropical storms, respectively.
Modeling for tidal flooding can often be estimated using a simplified topographic bathtub model using GIS, whereas storm-driven flooding may include complex storm surges, and rainfall, and derivative river discharges which necessitate the use of more complex physics-based models such as VIMS’ street-level inundation model or SCHISM to properly conserve fluid mass and momentum to most thoroughly estimate the timing, extents, and depths of anticipated flood impacts. These models have contributed to the long-standing record of expertise the Center for Coastal Resources Management (CCRM) has exemplified in flood-related advisory services through their development the Adapt VA portal, CCRMPs, and VFRIS in service to the Commonwealth since the CCRM’s inception in 1992.