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Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Friedrichs Home Page

Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs

Research Associate Professor of Marine Science

Email : [[marjy]]
Phone : (804) 684-7695
Interests : Marine ecosystem modeling; biogeochemical data assimilation; satellite ocean color data
Office : Andrews Hall 337
Department : Biological Sciences
Lab Website : {{http://www.vims.edu/research/units/labgroups/biocom/index.php, BioCOM}}

Education
  • B.A., Middlebury College
  • M.S., Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
  • Ph.D., Old Dominion University
Research Interests

My interdisciplinary research program focuses on optimally combining mathematical models with observations of biological, physical and chemical properties of estuaries and coastal oceans. I have a wide variety of funded research projects currently underway, and am looking for additional personnel at the graduate student and post-doctoral level to assist in these efforts. Current projects include studies focused on:            

  • Assessing the relative impacts of multiple anthropogenic stressors in estuarine environments, including hypoxia, acidification, and other effects of climate and land-use change
  • comparing and improving existing models of hypoxia within Chesapeake Bay
  • the assimilation of biological, physical and chemical data acquired from a remotely-operated glider in Antarctica into a marine ecosystem model
  • predicting how climate-related environmental changes will affect biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem dynamics on continental shelves and within the Chesapeake Bay

Other interests include satellite remote-sensing, model skill assessment, the estimation of productivity from space-borne sensors, and biogeochemical data assimilation.

Current Projects
  • Multiple stressors in the estuarine environment: What drives changes in the CO2 system? (Funded by NSF)
  • Transitioning an estuarine hypoxia model to operations via a Coastal Ocean Modeling Testbed in the Chesapeake Bay (Funded by NOAA)
  • Impacts of changing climate and land use on carbon cycling in the Chesapeake Bay and the coastal ocean margin (Funded by NASA)
  • Collaborative Research: Impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the biogeochemistry of oligotrophic coastal waters (Funded by NSF) 
  • Comparison of shallow-water models for use in supporting Chesapeake Bay management decision-making (Funded by EPA)
  • Synergistic impacts of population growth, urbanization and climate change on watersheds and coastal ecology of the northeastern United States (Funded by NASA)
  • Primary productivity algorithm round robin for the Arctic Ocean (PPARR; Funded by NASA)
Recent Publications
  • Irby I.D., M.A.M. Friedrichs, C.T. Friedrichs, A.J. Bever, R.R. Hood, L.W.J. Lanerolle, M. Li, L. Linker, M.E. Scully, K. Sellner, J. Shen, J. Testa, H. Wang, P. Wang, and M. Xia, 2016. Challenges associated with modeling low-oxygen waters in Chesapeake Bay: a multiple model comparison. Biogeosciences, doi: 10.5194/bg-13-2011-2016. Open Access.
  • Mannino, A., S. Signorini, M. Novak, J. Wilkin, M.A.M. Friedrichs, R.G. Najjar, 2016. Dissolved organic carbon fluxes in the Middle Atlantic Bight: An integrated approach based on satellite data and ocean model products. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 121, doi: 10.1002/2015JG003031.
  • Cahill, B., J. Wilkin, K. Fennel, D. Vandemark, and M.A.M. Friedrichs, 2016. Inter-annual and seasonal variability in air-sea CO2 fluxes along the U.S. Eastern Continental Shelf and their sensitivity to increasing air temperatures and variable winds, Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 121, doi:10.1002/2015JG002939.
  • Lee, Y., P.A. Matrai, M.A.M. Friedrichs, V.S. Saba and the Arctic PPARR team, 2015. An assessment of phytoplankton primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean from satellite ocean color/in situ chlorophyll-a based models. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, doi: 10.1002/2015JC011018. Open Access.
  • Feng, Y., M.A.M. Friedrichs, J. Wilkin, H. Tian, Q. Yang, E.E. Hofmann, J.D. Wiggert, R.R. Hood, 2015. Chesapeake Bay nitrogen fluxes derived from a land-estuarine ocean biogeochemical modeling system: Model description, evaluation and nitrogen budgets. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, doi:10.1002/2015JG002931. Open Access.
  • Yang, Q., H. Tian, M.A.M. Friedrichs, C. S. Hopkinson, C. Lu, R. G. Najjar, 2015. Increased nitrogen export from eastern North America to the Atlantic Ocean due to climatic and anthropogenic changes during 1901-2008. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 120, 1046-1068, doi:10.1002/2014JG002763. Online Access.
  • Tian, H., Q. Yang, R. Najjar, W. Ren, M.A.M. Friedrichs, C.S. Hopkinson, S. Pan, 2015. Anthropogenic and climatic influences on carbon fluxes from eastern North America to the Atlantic Ocean: A process-based modeling study. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 120, 757-772, doi:10.1002/2014JG002760. Open Access.
  • Yang, Q.H. TianM.A.M. FriedrichsM. LiuX. Li, and J. Yang2015Hydrological Responses to Climate and Land-Use Changes along the North American East Coast: A 110-Year Historical ReconstructionJournal of the American Water Resources Association, 51, 47-67. doi:10.1111/jawr.12232. Online Access.
  • Kaufman, D.E.M.A.M. Friedrichs, W. O. Smith, B. Y. Queste, K. J. Heywood, 2014. Biogeochemical variability in the southern Ross Sea as observed by a glider deployment. Deep-Sea Research I, 92, 93-106, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2014.06.011. Open Access.
  • Smith, W.O., Jr., K.T. Goetz, D.E. Kaufman, B.Y. Queste, V. Asper, D.P. Costa, M.S. Dinniman, M.A.M. Friedrichs, E.E. Hofmann, K.J. Heywood, J.M. Klinck, J.T. Kohut, and C.M. Lee. 2014. Multiplatform, multidisciplinary investigations of the impacts of Modified Circumpolar Deep Water in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Oceanography  27(2), doi:10.5670/oceanog.2014.36. Open Access.
  • Xiao, Y., and M.A.M. Friedrichs, 2014. Using biogeochemical data assimilation to assess the relative skill of multiple ecosystem models: effects of increasing the complexity of the planktonic food web. Biogeosciences, 11, 3015-3030, doi:10.5194/bg-11-3015-2014. Open Access.
  • Xiao, Y. and M.A.M. Friedrichs, 2014. The assimilation of satellite-derived data into a one-dimensional lower trophic level marine ecosystem model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 119, 2691-2712, doi:10.1002/2013JC009433. Open Access.
  • Bever, A. J.M.A.M. Friedrichs, C. T. Friedrichs, M. E. Scully, L. W. J. Lanerolle, 2013. Combining observations and numerical model results to improve estimates of hypoxic volume within the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118, 10, 4924-4944. Open Access.
  • Signorini, S. R., A. Mannino, R. G. Najjar Jr., M.A.M. Friedrichs, W.-J. Cai, J. Salisbury, Z. A. Wang, H. Thomas, and E. Shadwick, 2013. Surface ocean pCO2 seasonality and sea-air CO2 flux estimates for the North American east coast. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118, 10, 5439-5460, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20369. Open Access. 
  • Luettich, R. A., L.D. Wright, R. Signell, C. Friedrichs, M. Friedrichs, J. Harding, K. Fennel, E. Howlett, S. Graves, E. Smith, G. Crane, and R. Baltes, 2013. The U.S. IOOS coastal and ocean modeling testbed. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118, 6319-6328, doi:10.1002/2013JC008939. Open Access.
  • Luo, Y.-W., H. W. Ducklow, M.A.M. Friedrichs, M. J. Church, D. M. Karl, and S. C. Doney, 2012. Interannual variability of primary production and dissolved organic nitrogen storage in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 117, G03019, doi:10.1029/2011JG001830. Open Access.
  • Saba, V.S.M.A.M. Friedrichs, and the PPARR team, 2011. An evaluation of ocean color model estimates of marine primary productivity in coastal and pelagic regions across the globe. Biogeosciences, 8, 489-503,doi: 10.5194/bg-8-489-2011. Open Access.
  • Hofmann, E.E., B. Cahill, K. Fennel, M.A.M. Friedrichs, K. Hyde, C. Lee, A. Mannino, R.G. Najjar, J.E. O'Reilly, J. Wilkin, J. Xue, 2011. Modeling the dynamics of continental shelf carbon. Annual Review of Marine Science, 3, 93-122. Online Access.
  • Druon, J-N, A. Mannino, C. McClain, M. Friedrichs, J. Wilkin, K. Fennel, 2010. Modeling the dynamics and export of dissolved organic matter in the Northeastern U.S. continental shelf. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 88, 488-507. Online Access.
  • Saba, V.S.M.A.M. Friedrichs, M.-E. Carr and the PPARR team, 2010. Challenges of modeling depth-integrated marine primary productivity over multiple decades: A case study at BATS and HOT. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, GB3020, doi:10.1029/2009GB003655. Open Access.
  • Ward, B.A., M.A.M Friedrichs, T.R. Anderson, A. Oschlies, 2010. Parameter optimisation techniques and the problem of underdetermination in marine biogeochemical models. Journal of Marine Systems 81, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2009.12.005, 34-43. Online Access.
  • Luo, Y., M.A.M Friedrichs, S.C. Doney, M.J. Church, H.W. Ducklow, 2010. Oceanic heterotrophic bacterial nutrition by semilabile DOM as revealed by data assimilative modeling. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 60, doi:10.3354/ame01427, 273-287. Online Access.
  • Friedrichs, M.A.M., Carr, M.-E., Barber, R., Scardi, M., Antoine, D., Armstrong, R.A., Asanuma,I., Behrenfeld, M.J., Buitenhuis, E.T., Chai, F., Christian, J.R., Ciotti, A.M., Doney, S.C., Dowell, M., Dunne, J., Gentili, B., Gregg, W., Hoepffner, N., Ishizaka, J., Kameda, T., Lima, I., Marra, J., Mélin, F., Moore, J.K., Morel, A., O'Malley, R.T., O'Reilly, J., Saba, V.S., Schmeltz, M., Smyth, T.J., Tjiputra, J., Waters, K., Westberry, T.K., Winguth, A., 2009. Assessing the uncertainties of model estimates of primary productivity in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Journal of Marine Systems, 76, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.05.010. Online Access.
  • Gregg, W., M.A.M. Friedrichs, A. R. Robinson, K. Rose, R. Schlitzer, and K.R. Thompson, 2009. Skill assessment in ocean biological data assimilation. Journal of Marine Systems, 76, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.05.006. Online Access. 
  • Jolliff, J., J.C. Kindle, I. Shulman, B. Penta, M.A.M.Friedrichs, R.Helber, R.A. Arnone, 2009. Summary diagrams for coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model skill assessment. Journal of Marine Systems, 76, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.05.014. Online Access. 
  • Stow, C.A., J.K. Jolliff, D.J. McGillicuddy, Jr., S.C. Doney, M.A.M. Friedrichs, J.I. Allen, K.A Rose, and P. Wallhead, 2009. Skill Assessment for Coupled Biological/Physical Models of Marine Systems. Journal of Marine Systems, 76, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.03.011. Online Access. 
  • Hofmann, E. E., J.-N. Druon, K. Fennel, M.A.M. Friedrichs, D. Haidvogel, C. Lee, A. Mannino, C. McClain, R. Najjar, J. Siewert, J. OReilly, D. Pollard, M. Previdi, S. Seitzinger, S. Signorini, J. Wilkin, 2008. Eastern U.S. Continental Shelf Carbon Budget: Integrating Models, Data Assimilation, and Analysis, Oceanography, 21 (1): 86-104. Download 
  • Friedrichs, M.A.M., J. Dusenberry, L. Anderson, R. Armstrong, F. Chai, J. Christian, S.C. Doney, J. Dunne, M. Fujii, R. Hood, D. McGillicuddy, K. Moore, M. Schartau, Y. H. Sptiz, J. Wiggert, 2007. Assessment of skill and portability in regional marine biogeochemical models: role of multiple phytoplankton groups. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, CO8001, doi:10.1029/2006JC003852. Open Access.
  • Carr, M.-E., M.A.M. Friedrichs and the PPARR3 team, 2006. A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color. Deep-Sea Research II, 53: 741-770. Download
  • Friedrichs, M.A.M., R. Hood, and J. Wiggert, 2006. Ecosystem model complexity versus physical forcing: Quantification of their relative impact with assimilated Arabian Sea data. Deep-Sea Research II, 53: 576-600. Download
  • Hood, R., E. Laws, K. Moore, R. Armstrong, N. Bates, C. Carlson, F. Chai, S. Doney, P. Falkowski, D. Feely,M. Friedrichs, M. Landry, R. Letelier, D. Nelson, T. Richardson, B. Salihoglu, J. Wiggert, and M. Schartau, 2006. Functional group modeling: progress, challenges and prospects. Deep-Sea Research II, 53: 459-512. Open Access.
  • Friedrichs, M.A.M., 2002. Assimilation of SeaWiFS and JGOFS EqPac data into a marine ecosystem model of the central equatorial Pacific. Deep-Sea Research II, 49: 289-319. Online Access.
  • Hofmann E.E., and M.A.M. Friedrichs, 2002. Predictive modeling for marine ecosystems. In: Robinson, A.R.; McCarthy, J.J.; Rothschild B.J. (eds.), The Sea, Volume 12: Biological-Physical Interactions in the Ocean, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY, pp. 537-565. 
  • Doney, S.C., I. Lima, K. Lindsay, J.K. Moore, S. Dutkiewicz, M.A.M. Friedrichs, and R. Matear, 2001. Marine biogeochemical modeling. Oceanography, 14 (4): 93-107. DownloadOpen Access.
  • Friedrichs, M.A.M., 2001. A data-assimilative marine ecosystem model of the central equatorial Pacific: numerical twin experiments. Journal of Marine Research, 59: 859-894. Open Access.
  • Friedrichs, M.A.M., and E.E. Hofmann, 2001. Physical control of biological processes in the central equatorial Pacific. Deep-Sea Research I, 48: 1023-1069. Online Access.
  • Hofmann, E.E., and M.A.M. Friedrichs, 2001. Biogeochemical data assimilation. In: J.H. Steele, S.A. Thorpe, and K.K. Turekian (eds.) Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences Vol. 1, pp. 302-308. London, UK: Academic Press.
Students

Current students:

Current post-docs:

 Graduated students:

  • Ph.D. Yongjin Xiao (2013)
  • M.S. Kelsey Fall (2012)

Former post-docs

  • Dr. Aaron Bever, currently at Anchor, QEA, LLC
  • Dr. Jianhong Xue, currently at University of Texas
  • Dr. Vincent Saba, currently at NOAA NMFS
  • Dr. Yang (Cathy) Feng

Current Student Committees:

  • Praveen Kumar, Ph.D. (ODU)
  • Danielle Tarpley Smith, Ph.D. (VIMS)
  • Bianca Santos, M.S. (VIMS)
  • Fei Ye, Ph.D. (VIMS)
  • Randy Jones, M.S. (VIMS)
  • Mark Stratton, Ph.D. (VIMS)

Past Student Committees:

  • Lela Schlenker, M.S. VIMS, 2014. “Evaluating post-release mortality of white marlin caught in the recreational fishery.”
  • Dan Tomaso, M.S. Penn State University, 2013. “Salt, freshwater and oxygen budgets of the Delaware Bay”
  • Steven Baer, Ph.D. VIMS, 2013. “Seasonal Nitrogen Uptake and Regeneration in the Water Column and Sea-Ice of the Western Coastal Arctic”
  • Gabby Saluta, M.S. VIMS, 2012. “Spatial distribution of overwintering blue crabs in Chesapeake Bay.”
  • Xiao Liu, M.S. VIMS, 2011. "Ecological, Physiological, and Bio-optical Characteristics of Phaeocystis globosa in Coastal Waters of South Central Vietnam."
  • Tian Tian, M.S. ODU, 2011. "Model-Based Analyses of Nitrogen Cycling on the Mid-Atlantic Bight Continental Shelf."
  • Mehara Kidston, Ph.D. CSIRO, Australia, 2010. “Southern Ocean ecosystem modeling using data assimilation.”
  • Aaron Bever, Ph.D. VIMS, 2010. "Integrating Space- and Time-Scales of Sediment Transport for Poverty Bay, New Zealand."
  • David Elliot, Ph.D. VIMS, 2010. "The Occurrence of Carcasses, Mortality and Population Dynamics of Copepods in the Lower Chesapeake Bay." 
  • Wayne Luo, Ph.D. Marine Biological Laboratory/Brown University, 2009. "A Data Assimilating Model of the Microbial Ecosystem in the Open Ocean."
  • Baris Salihoglu, Ph.D. ODU, 2005. "Modeling the Effects of Physical and Biogeochemical Processes on Phytoplankton Species and Carbon Production in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean."