Learn about underwater bay grasses, also known as submerged aquatic vegetation or SAV. Bay grasses provide food and refuge for blue crabs, striped bass, and many other Bay organisms, but are under threat from cloudy waters and rising temperatures. For a more detailed look at SAV research and restoration activities, visit our SAV Program, the center of SAV science at VIMS
Survey of underwater grasses shows both decline and resilience in 2011 (March 2012)
The abundance of underwater grasses in Chesapeake Bay declined by 21% between 2010 and 2011 to the lowest Bay-wide values since 2006. The 2011 coverage is more typical of what was observed prior to 1991 when grass acreages were at the lowest levels recorded by VIMS' annual aerial survey.
Eelgrass restoration aids overall recovery of coastal bays (February 2012)
VIMS scientists and research partners document how a 15-year eelgrass restoration effort has led to a healthier and more vibrant ecosystem in Virginia's seaside bays.
Long-term monitoring programs throw light on storm impacts (September 2011)
Data allow researchers to gauge how a large plume of sediment from Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee may impact water quality and baygrasses in lower Chesapeake Bay.
VIMS prof assists in global analysis of seagrass extinction risk (May 2011)
The first-ever study of the conservation status of individual seagrass species shows that 14% are at an elevated risk of extinction.
Coverage of underwater Bay grasses decreases in 2010 (April 2011)
Coverage of underwater Bay grasses fell by 6,239 acres in Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries, partly due to hot summer temperatures.
Loss of plant diversity threatens Earth's life-support systems (March 2011)
An international research team that includes professor Emmett Duffy of VIMS finds that loss of plant biodiversity disrupts the fundamental services that ecosystems provide to humanity.
VIMS professor wins NSF grant for global seagrass experiment (October 2010)
Dr. Emmett Duffy has received a 3-year grant from the National Science Foundation to establish a global experimental network for studying how changes in biodiversity impact seagrass beds.
Study shows Bay clean up helps boost underwater grasses (July 2010)
Long-term field study of water quality and underwater grasses shows a clear link between the abundance of submerged aquatic vegetation and levels of nitrogen in Bay waters.
Seagrass restoration effort with volunteers (June 2010)
VIMS collaborates with The Nature Conservancy and volunteers to help collect eelgrass seeds on Virginia's Eastern Shore.
Bay grasses up but below goal (April 2010)
Underwater bay grasses increased 12 percent in Chesapeake Bay and rivers in 2009, but coverage remains far below abundance goal.
Researchers create interactive map of bay grasses (June 2009)
New tool in Google Maps allows web users to interactively view coverage of underwater grasses in Chesapeake Bay.
Orth highlights success in seagrass restoration (May 2009)
Professor Robert Orth describes his team’s success in restoring underwater grasses to Virginia's seaside lagoons during the International Marine Conservation Congress.
Encouraging news on Bay grasses (April 2009)
VIMS research shows that underwater grasses increased in Chesapeake Bay and rivers in 2008.
VIMS seagrass program ramps up for annual restoration effort (April 2009)
VIMS undertakes a collaborative venture to use volunteers to help collect eelgrass seeds for restoration in the seaside bays of Virginia’s Eastern Shore.
Bay grasses up but still short of goal (April 2008)
VIMS researcher Bob Orth and colleagues issue the Chesapeake Bay Program's yearly report on grass health in the Bay. The report shows a slight increase in SAV baywide in 2007, but concern persists because of continuing declines in water clarity.
Bay grasses down in 06 (Mar 2007)
In 2006, Chesapeake Bay underwater grasses experienced a 25% decrease baywide, the first setback for SAV after two consecutive years of moderate gains.
Scientists shine light on global seagrass crisis (Dec 2006)
A study by VIMS researcher Robert Orth and an international group of colleagues shows that the public remains largely unaware of the scope and significance of the global seagrass crisis.
Bay grass acreage sprouts in 2005 (June 2006)
Data gathered by VIMS for the Chesapeake Bay Program shows that underwater bay grass acreage increased by 7% in 2005, to about 42% of baywide restoration goals.
Eelgrass dieback concerns researchers
Eelgrass experieces a widespread defoliation in lower and mid-bay areas following unusually high water temperatures and calm conditions during July and August.
Study links biodiversity and ecosystem function
A food-web study of sea-grass beds by VIMS researchers shows that reduced biodiversity may affect ecosystems in a much more complicated way than suggested by earlier experiments.
Study reveals drop in SAV
VIMS’ annual analysis of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Chesapeake Bay shows a significant decline in bay grass coverage during 2003. The 30% decrease recorded by VIMS researchers offsets significant increases in bay grass acreage measured during the previous few years of drought.
Moore monitors water quality and seagrasses
VIMS researcher Ken Moore and colleagues use the high-tech Dataflow sensor to track Virginia's commitment to the water-quality standars of the "Chesapeake 2000" plan.
Orth studies seed predators
VIMS researcher Robert Orth studies how eelgrasses are affected by the creatures that eat their seeds.
- Historical analysis of SAV in the Potomac River and Analysis of Bay-wide Historic SAV to establish a New Acreage Goal. K. A. Moore, D. J. Wilcox, B. Anderson, T. A. Parham, and M. D. Naylor. Report to EPA Chesapeake Bay Program. April 2004.
- Analysis of Historical Distribution of SAV in the Eastern Shore Coastal Basins and Mid-Bay Island Complexes as Evidence of Historical Water Quality Conditions and a Restored Bay Ecosystem. K. A. Moore, D. J. Wilcox, B. Anderson, R. J. Orth. Report to EPA Chesapeake Bay Program. April 2003.
- Causes of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Declines in Tangier Sound, Chesapeake Bay. R. Orth, K. Moore, J. Fishman, D. Wilcox, L. Karrh, and T. Parham. Report to EPA Chesapeake Bay Program. December 2002.
- Analysis of historical distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the York and Rappahannock rivers as evidence of historical water quality conditions. K. A. Moore, D. J. Wilcox, B. Anderson, R. J. Orth. Report to EPA Chesapeake Bay Program. November 2001.
- Submerged Aquatic Vegetation
- Benthic Ecology
- Chesapeake Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (CBNERR)
- Community Ecology
- Eastern Shore Laboratory (ESL)
- Ecosystem Modeling
- Linking Benthic Community Structure and Ecosystem Function
- Marine Biodiversity
- NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office in Virginia (NCBO)
- Initiative for Coastal Climate Change Research (ICCCR)
- Sea Coast and Sea Level Trends
- Sea Turtle Stranding Program
- Moore, K. A., B. B. Neikirk, B.-A. Anderson, and J. C. Jarvis. 2007. Water quality conditions and restoration of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the tidal freshwater James River, 2006. Report 396.
- Orth, R. J., and coauthors. 2006. 2005 distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay and coastal bays. Report 147.
- Moore, K. A., B. B. Neikirk, and B.-A. Anderson. 2006. Water quality conditions and restoration of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the tidal freshwater James River, 2005. Report 392.
- Orth, R. J., D. J. Wilcox, L. S. Nagey, J. R. Whiting, and A. K. Kenne. 2005. 2004 Distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay and Coastal Bays. Report 146.
- Moore, K. A., B. B. Neikirk, B.-A. Anderson, and Hopewell Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility. 2005. Water quality conditions and restoration of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the tidal freshwater James River, 2003-2004. Report 389.
- Moore, K. A., D. J. Wilcox, B.-A. Anderson, and R. J. Orth. 2003. Analysis of historical distribution of SAV in the Eastern Shore coastal basins and mid-bay island complexes as evidence of historical water quality conditions and a restored bay ecosystem. Report 383.
- Moore, K. A., B.-A. Anderson, and D. J. Wilcox. 2003. Intensive water quality mapping of nearshore and mid-channel regions of the James River relative to SAV growth and survival using the DATAFLOW surface water quality mapping system. Report 385.
- Moore, K. A., B.-A. Anderson, B. B. Neikirk, and Hopewell Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility. 2003. Restoration of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the tidal freshwater James River, 2002-2003. Report 384.
- Moore, K. A., B.-A. Anderson, and B. B. Neikirk. 2002. Restoration of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the tidal freshwater James River, year 3. Report 377.
- Moore, K. A., D. J. Wilcox, B.-A. Anderson, and R. J. Orth. 2001. Analysis of historical distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the York and Rappahannock rivers as evidence of historical water quality conditions. Report 375.
- Moore, K. A., K. Segerblom, B. B. Neikirk, and J. R. Fishman. 2000. Restoration of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the tidal freshwater James River, year 2. Report 373.
- Moore, K. A., R. J. Orth, and J. R. Fishman. 2000. Restoration of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the tidal freshwater James River, 1999 pilot study. Report 365.
- Moore, K. A., D. J. Wilcox, R. J. Orth, E. M. Bailey, and Virginia Coastal Resources Management Program. 1999. Analysis of historical distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the James River. Report 355.
- Wetzel, R. L., M. B. Meyers, and Chesapeake Bay Program. 1994. Ecosystem process modeling of submerged aquatic vegetation in the lower Chesapeake Bay. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Chesapeake Bay Program, Report 323, Annapolis, Md.
- Orth, R. J., and K. A. Moore. 1982. Distribution and abundance of submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay : a scientific summary, Report 259.
- Orth, R. J., and K. A. Moore. 1982. The biology and propagation of Zostera marina, eelgrass, in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Report 265.
- Reynolds, L.K., Waycott, M., McGlathery, K.J., Orth, R.J. & Zieman, J.C., 2012. Eelgrass restoration by seed maintains genetic diversity: case study from a coastal bay system. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 448, 223-233.
- Orth, R.J., Moore, K.A., Marion, S.R., Wilcox, D.J. & Parrish, D.B., 2012. Seed addition facilitates eelgrass recovery in a coastal bay system. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 448, 177-195.
- Moore, K.A., Shields, E.C., Parrish, D.B. & Orth, R.J., 2012. Eelgrass survival in two contrasting systems: role of turbidity and summer water temperatures. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 448, 247-258.
- McGlathery, K.J., Reynolds, L.K., Cole, L.W., Orth, R.J., Marion, S.R. & Schwarzschild, A., 2012. Recovery trajectories during state change from bare sediment to eelgrass dominance. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 448, 209-221.
- Marion, S.R. & Orth, R.J., 2012. Seedling establishment in eelgrass: seed burial effects on winter losses of developing seedlings. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 448, 197-207.
- Jarvis, J.C., Moore, K.A. & Kenworthy, W.J., 2012. Characterization and ecological implication of eelgrass life history strategies near the species' southern limit in the western North Atlantic. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 444, 43-56.
- Short, F.T., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S.R., Carpenter, K.E., Bandeira, S., Bujang, J.S., Calumpong, H.P., Carruthers, T.J.B., Coles, R.G., Dennison, W.C., Erftemeijer, P.L.A., Fortes, M.D., Freeman, A.S., Jagtap, T.G., Kamal, A.M., Kendrick, G.A., Kenworthy, W.J., La Nafie, Y.A., Nasution, I.M., Orth, R.J., Prathep, A., Sanciangco, J.C., van Tussenbroek, B., Vergara, S.G., Waycott, M. & Zieman, J.C., 2011. Extinction risk assessment of the world's seagrass species. Biological Conservation, 144(7), 1961-1971.
- Douglass, J.G., Duffy, J.E. & Canuel, E.A., 2011. Food Web Structure in a Chesapeake Bay Eelgrass Bed as Determined through Gut Contents and (13)C and (15)N Isotope Analysis. Estuaries and Coasts, 34(4), 701-711.
- Orth, R.J., Williams, M.R., Marion, S.R., Wilcox, D.J., Carruthers, T.J.B., Moore, K.A., Kemp, W.M., Dennison, W.C., Rybicki, N., Bergstrom, P. & Batiuk, R.A., 2010. Long-Term Trends in Submersed Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) in Chesapeake Bay, USA, Related to Water Quality. Estuaries and Coasts, 33(5), 1144-1163.
- Orth, R.J., Marion, S.R., Moore, K.A. & Wilcox, D.J., 2010. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Chesapeake Bay Region of Mid-Atlantic Coast of the USA: Challenges in Conservation and Restoration. Estuaries and Coasts, 33(1), 139-150.
- Marion, S.R. & Orth, R.J., 2010. Factors Influencing Seedling Establishment Rates in Zostera marina and Their Implications for Seagrass Restoration. Restoration Ecology, 18(4), 549-559.
- Marion, S.R. & Orth, R.J., 2010. Innovative Techniques for Large-scale Seagrass Restoration Using Zostera marina (eelgrass) Seeds. Restoration Ecology, 18(4), 514-526.
- Jarvis, J.C. & Moore, K.A., 2010. The role of seedlings and seed bank viability in the recovery of Chesapeake Bay, USA, Zostera marina populations following a large-scale decline. Hydrobiologia, 649(1), 55-68.
- Douglass, J.G., France, K.E., Richardson, J.P. & Duffy, J.E., 2010. Seasonal and interannual change in a Chesapeake Bay eelgrass community: Insights into biotic and abiotic control of community structure. Limnology and Oceanography, 55(4), 1499-1520.
- Blake, R.E. & Duffy, J.E., 2010. Grazer diversity affects resistance to multiple stressors in an experimental seagrass ecosystem. Oikos, 119(10), 1625-1635.
- Waycott, M., Duarte, C.M., Carruthers, T.J.B., Orth, R.J., Dennison, W.C., Olyarnik, S., Calladine, A., Fourqurean, J.W., Heck, K.L., Hughes, A.R., Kendrick, G.A., Kenworthy, W.J., Short, F.T. & Williams, S.L., 2009. Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(30), 12377-12381.
- Spivak, A.C., Canuel, E.A., Duffy, J.E., Douglass, J.G. & Richardson, J.P., 2009. Epifaunal community composition and nutrient addition alter sediment organic matter composition in a natural eelgrass Zostera marina bed: a field experiment. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 376, 55-67.
- Orth, R.J., Marion, S.R., Granger, S. & Traber, M., 2009. Evaluation of a mechanical seed planter for transplanting Zostera marina (eelgrass) seeds. Aquatic Botany, 90(2), 204-208.
- Heck, K.L., Carruthers, T.J.B., Duarte, C.M., Hughes, A.R., Kendrick, G., Orth, R.J. & Williams, S.W., 2008. Trophic Transfers from Seagrass Meadows Subsidize Diverse Marine and Terrestrial Consumers. Ecosystems, 11(7), 1198-1210.
- Spivak, A.C., Canuel, E.A., Duffy, J.E. & Richardson, J.P., 2007. Top-down and bottom-up controls on sediment organic matter composition in an experimental seagrass ecosystem. Limnology and Oceanography, 52(6), 2595-2607.
- Orth, R.J., Kendrick, G.A. & Marion, S.R., 2007. Posidonia australis seed predation in seagrass habitats of Two Peoples Bay, Western Australia. Aquatic Botany, 86(1), 83-85.
- Canuel, E. A., A. C. Spivak, E. J. Waterson, and J. E. Duffy. 2007. Biodiversity and food web structure influence short-term accumulation of sediment organic matter in an experimental seagrass system. Limnology and Oceanography 52(2):590-602.
- Douglass, J. G., J. E. Duffy, A. C. Spivak, and J. P. Richardson. 2007. Nutrient versus consumer control of community structure in a Chesapeake Bay eelgrass habitat. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 348:71-83.
- Orth, R. J., G. A. Kendrick, and S. R. Marion. 2007. Posidonia australis seed predation in seagrass habitats of Two Peoples Bay, Western Australia. Aquatic Botany 86(1):83-85.
- Spivak, A. C., E. A. Canuel, J. E. Duffy, and J. P. Richardson. 2007. Top-down and bottom-up controls on sediment organic matter composition in an experimental seagrass ecosystem. Limnology and Oceanography 52(6):2595-2607.
- Wilcox, D., A. Kenne, and R. Orth. 2007. Using internet mapping to share Chesapeake Vay SAV monitoring results. Pages 29 in Coastal GeoTools '07. NOAA Coastal Services Center, Myrtle Beach, SC (USA).
- Duffy, J. E. 2006. Biodiversity and the functioning of seagrass ecosystems. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 311:233-250.
- Orth, R. J., and coauthors. 2006. A global crisis for seagrass ecosystems. Bioscience 56(12):987-996.
- Orth, R. J., G. A. Kendrick, and S. R. Marion. 2006. Predation on Posidonia australis seeds in seagrass habitats of Rottnest Island, Western Australia: patterns and predators. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 313:105-114.
- Orth, R. J., M. L. Luckenbach, S. R. Marion, K. A. Moore, and D. J. Wilcox. 2006. Seagrass recovery in the Delmarva Coastal Bays, USA. Aquatic Botany 84(1):26-36.
- Tuckey, T. D., and M. Dehaven. 2006. Fish assemblages found in tidal-creek and seagrass habitats in the Suwannee River estuary. Fishery Bulletin 104(1):102-117.
- Dorval, E., C. M. Jones, R. Hannigan, and J. van Montfrans. 2005. Can otolith chemistry be used for identifying essential seagrass habitats for juvenile spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, in Chesapeake Bay? Marine and Freshwater Research 56(5):645-653.
- Lipcius, R. N., R. D. Seitz, M. S. Seebo, and D. Colon-Carrion. 2005. Density, abundance and survival of the blue crab in seagrass and unstructured salt marsh nurseries of Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 319(1-2):69-80.
- Seitz, R. D., R. N. Lipcius, and M. S. Seebo. 2005. Food availability and growth of the blue crab in seagrass and unvegetated nurseries of Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 319(1-2):57-68.
- Fishman, J. R., R. J. Orth, S. Marion, and J. Bieri. 2004. A comparative test of mechanized and manual transplanting of eelgrass, Zostera marina, in Chesapeake Bay. Restoration Ecology 12(2):214-219.
- Kemp, W. M., and coauthors. 2004. Habitat requirements for submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay: Water quality, light regime, and physical-chemical factors. Estuaries 27(3):363-377.
- Moore, K. A. 2004. Influence of seagrasses on water quality in shallow regions of the lower Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Coastal Research:162-178.
- Rhode, J. M., and J. E. Duffy. 2004. Relationships between bed age, bed size, and genetic structure in Chesapeake Bay (Virginia, USA) eelgrass (Zostera marina L.). Conservation Genetics 5(5):661-671.
- Rhode, J. M., and J. E. Duffy. 2004. Seed production from the mixed mating system of Chesapeake Bay (USA) eelgrass (Zostera marina; Zosteraceae). American Journal of Botany 91(2):192-197.
- Duffy, J. E., J. P. Richardson, and E. A. Canuel. 2003. Grazer diversity effects on ecosystem functioning in seagrass beds. Ecology Letters 6(7):637-645.
- Etherington, L. L., D. B. Eggleston, and W. T. Stockhausen. 2003. Partitioning loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats into mortality and emigration. Bulletin of Marine Science 72(2):371-391.
- Heck, K. L., G. Hays, and R. J. Orth. 2003. Critical evaluation of the nursery role hypothesis for seagrass meadows. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 253:123-136.
- Orth, R. J., J. R. Fishman, M. C. Harwell, and S. R. Marion. 2003. Seed-density effects on germination and initial seedling establishment in eelgrass Zostera marina in the Chesapeake Bay region. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 250:71-79.
- Stockhausen, W. T., and R. N. Lipcius. 2003. Simulated effects of seagrass loss and restoration on settlement and recruitment of blue crab postlarvae and juveniles in the York River, Chesapeake Bay. Bulletin of Marine Science 72(2):409-422.
- Bartholomew, A. 2002. Faunal colonization of artificial seagrass plots: The importance of surface area versus space size relative to body size. Estuaries 25(5):1045-1052.
- Harwell, M. C., and R. J. Orth. 2002. Seed bank patterns in Chesapeake Bay eelgrass (Zostera marina L.): A bay-wide perspective. Estuaries 25(6A):1196-1204.
- Hovel, K. A., and R. N. Lipcius. 2002. Effects of seagrass habitat fragmentation on juvenile blue crab survival and abundance. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 271(1):75-98.
- Orth, R. J., R. A. Batiuk, P. W. Bergstrom, and K. A. Moore. 2002. A perspective on two decades of policies and regulations influencing the protection and restoration of submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Bulletin of Marine Science 71(3):1391-1403.
- Orth, R. J., K. L. Heck, and D. J. Tunbridge. 2002. Predation on seeds of the seagrass Posidonia australis in Western Australia. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 244:81-88.
- Cerco, C. F., and K. Moore. 2001. System-wide submerged aquatic vegetation model for Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 24(4):522-534.
- Duffy, J. E., and A. M. Harvilicz. 2001. Species-specific impacts of grazing, amphipods in an eelgrass-bed community. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 223:201-211.
- Duffy, J. E., K. S. Macdonald, J. M. Rhode, and J. D. Parker. 2001. Grazer diversity, functional redundancy, and productivity in seagrass beds: An experimental test. Ecology 82(9):2417-2434.
- Harwell, M. C., and R. J. Orth. 2001. Influence of a tube-dwelling polychaete on the dispersal of fragmented reproductive shoots of eelgrass. Aquatic Botany 70(1):1-7.
- Hovel, K. A., and R. N. Lipcius. 2001. Habitat fragmentation in a seagrass landscape: Patch size and complexity control blue crab survival. Ecology 82(7):1814-1829.
- Patterson, M. R., M. C. Harwelll, L. M. Orth, and R. J. Orth. 2001. Biomechanical properties of the reproductive shoots of eelgrass. Aquatic Botany 69(1):27-40.
- Moore, K. A., and R. L. Wetzel. 2000. Seasonal variations in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) responses to nutrient enrichment and reduced light availability in experimental ecosystems. Journal of experimental marine biology and ecology 244(1):1-28.
- Orth, R. J., and coauthors. 2000. A review of issues in seagrass seed dormancy and germination: implications for conservation and restoration. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 200:277-288.
- Harwell, M. C., and R. J. Orth. 1999. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) seed protection for field experiments and implications for large-scale restoration. Aquatic Botany 64(1):51-61.
- Orth, R. J., M. C. Harwell, and J. R. Fishman. 1999. A rapid and simple method for transplanting eelgrass using single, unanchored shoots. Aquatic Botany 64(1):77-85.
- Buzzelli, C. P., R. L. Wetzel, and M. B. Meyers. 1998. Dynamic simulation of littoral zone habitats in lower Chesapeake Bay. II. Seagrass habitat primary production and water quality relationships. Estuaries 21(4B):673-689.
- Lipcius, R. N., D. B. Eggleston, D. L. Miller, and T. C. Luhrs. 1998. The habitat-survival function for Caribbean spiny lobster: an inverted size effect and non-linearity in mixed algal and seagrass habitats. Marine and Freshwater Research 49(8):807-816.
- Williams, S. L., and R. J. Orth. 1998. Genetic diversity and structure of natural and transplanted eelgrass populations in the Chesapeake and Chincoteague bays. Estuaries 21(1):118-128.
- Fong, P., M. E. Jacobson, M. C. Mescher, D. Lirman, and M. C. Harwell. 1997. Investigating the management potential of a seagrass model through sensitivity analysis and experiments. Ecological Applications 7(1):300-315.
- Moore, K. A., R. L. Wetzel, and R. J. Orth. 1997. Seasonal pulses of turbidity and their relations to eelgrass (Zostera marina L) survival in an estuary. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 215(1):115-134.
- Burke, M. K., W. C. Dennison, and K. A. Moore. 1996. Non-structural carbohydrate reserves of eelgrass Zostera marina. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 137(1-3):195-201.
- Moore, K. A., H. A. Neckles, and R. J. Orth. 1996. Zostera marina (eelgrass) growth and survival along a gradient of nutrients and turbidity in the lower Chesapeake Bay. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 142(1-3):247-259.
- Orth, R., and coauthors. 1996. Utilization of seagrass habitat by the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, in Chesapeake Bay: a review. Pages 213-224 in International Workshop on Seagrass Biology, .
- Goodman, J. L., K. A. Moore, and W. C. Dennison. 1995. Photosynthetic Responses of Eelgrass (Zostera marina L) to Light and Sediment Sulfide in a Shallow Barrier-Island Lagoon. Aquatic Botany 50(1):37-47.
- Poth, M., I. C. Anderson, H. S. Miranda, A. C. Miranda, and P. J. Riggan. 1995. The Magnitude and Persistence of Soil NO, N2O, CH4, and CO, Fluxes from Burned Tropical Savanna in Brazil. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 9(4):503-513.
- Neckles, H. A., E. T. Koepfler, L. W. Haas, R. L. Wetzel, and R. J. Orth. 1994. Dynamics of Epiphytic Photoautotrophs and Heterotrophs in Zostera marina (Eelgrass) Microcosms - Responses to Nutrient Enrichment and Grazing. Estuaries 17(3):597-605.
- Moore, K. A., R. J. Orth, and J. F. Nowak. 1993. Environmental regulation of seed germination in Zostera marina L (Eelgrass) in Chesapeake Bay - Effects of light, oxygen and sediment burial. Aquatic Botany 45(1):79-91.
- Fredette, T. J., R. J. Diaz, J. Vanmontfrans, and R. J. Orth. 1990. Secondary Production within a Seagrass Bed (Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima) in Lower Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 13(4):431-440.
- Orth, R. J., and J. Vanmontfrans. 1990. Utilization of Marsh and Seagrass Habitats by Early Stages of Callinectes sapidus - a Latitudinal Perspective. Bulletin of Marine Science 46(1):126-144.
- Ryer, C. H., J. Vanmontfrans, and R. J. Orth. 1990. Utilization of a Seagrass Meadow and Tidal Marsh Creek by Blue Crabs Callinectes sapidus .2. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Molting. Bulletin of Marine Science 46(1):95-104.
- Orth, R. J., and K. A. Moore. 1983. Chesapeake Bay: An Unprecedented Decline in Submerged Aquatic Vegetation. Science 222(4619):51-53.
- France, K. E. 2007. Effects of regional species pool dynamics on metacommunity structure and ecosystem function. Ph.D. Dissertation. The College of William and Mary, Gloucester Pt. VA.
- Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) - Underwater Bay Grasses
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - SAV
- US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) SAV Restoration Research Program
- Freshwater SAV Partnership
- Virginia Department of Environemental Quality (DEQ) - Coastal Zone Seagrass
- Maryland Department of Natural Resource (Md-DNR) - Underwater Bay Grasses
- Alliance for Cheseapeake Bay (ACB)
- Cheseapeake Bay Foundation (CBF) - Underwater Grasses
- Seagrass.li - Long Island Seagrass Conservation