Directory Page Title

Fu-Lin E. Chu

Emeritus professor, Department of Aquatic Health Sciences, School of Marine Science, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary

Email: [[chu]]
Phone: (804) 684-7349
Office: Chesapeake Bay Hall S112
Retired: 2009

  • Ph.D. in Marine Science, College of William and Mary
  • M.S. in Radiation Biology, University of Rochester
  • B.S. in Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong

Research Interests

My research focuses on nutrition and host/parasite interactions in shellfish and fish. I am especially interested in the effects of environmental factors including pollution on host/parasite interactions, and immunological, biochemical and pathological responses associated with exposure to diseases and anthropogenic chemicals. In the nutrition aspect, I am especially interested in essential nutrient “upgrading” and transfer, trophic interactions and food webs and biochemical processes affecting fishery production in marine coastal environments. I am also interested in conducting research to understand the effects essential nutrients and growth factors in enhancing shellfish/fish growth and survival, and the effects of environmental stress on development and reproduction of aquatic organisms.

Recently Completed Projects

1. Evaluation of toxicity of Deep Water Horizon Oil spill and dispersants on the physiological and ecological responses of the commercially and ecologically important eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica (Stratus Consulting Inc.).

2. Fatty acid and sterol metabolism in planktonic heterotrophic protists: essential nutrient upgrading and transfer and their ecological implications in pelagic food webs (National Science Foundation, USA)

3. Effects of plankton composition and nutritional quality on growth of newly metamorphosed winter flounder (Collaborative Marine Education and Research Program, NOAA, USA).

4. Enhanced tautog (Tautoga onitis) survival via essential fatty acid enrichment of larval feed (Collaborative Marine Education and Research Program, NOAA, USA).

5. Lipid metabolism in the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, and the role of host lipids in the development and proliferation of the parasite (National Science Foundation, USA).

6. Development of a chemotherapeutic protocol for eliminating and/or reducing perkinsus marinus from infected oysters (ODRP, Sea Grant, NOAA, USA)

7. Evaluation of inherent and induced thermal-tolerance in protection of oyster populations from summer mortality caused by Dermo and MSX parasitism and thermal stress (ODRP, Sea Grant, NOAA, USA).

8. Comparison of physiological condition and defense mechanisms of eastern oyster populations with natural Dermo resistance (ODRP, Sea Grant, NOAA, USA)

Selected Publications (2005-2015)
  • Vignier, J., Donaghy, L., Soudant, P., Fu-Lin E. Chu, Morris, J.M., Carney, M.W., Lay, C., Krasnec, M., Robert, R., & Volety, A.K. (2015). Impacts of Deepwater Horizon oil and dispersant on early development of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 100(1), 426-437. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.08.011 

  • Philippe Soudant, Fu-Lin E. Chu, and Aswani Volety. (2013). Host-Parasite Interactions: Marine Bivalve Mollusks and Protozoan parasites, Perkinsus species. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 114: 196-216.
  • Do-Hyung Kang, Fu-Lin E. Chu, Hyun-Sung Yang, Chang-Ho Lee, Hyeong-Beom Koh and Kwang-Sik Choi (2010). Growth, reproductive condition, and digestive tubule atrophy of Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas in Gamakman Bay off the southern coast of Korea. Journal of Shellfish Research, Vol. 29, No. 4, 839–845, 2010.
  • S.E. Wilson, D.K. Steinberg, Fu-Lin E. Chu, J.K.B. Bishop. (2010). Feeding ecology of mesopelagic zooplankton of the subtropical and subarctic North Pacific Ocean determined with fatty acid biomarkers. Deep-Sea Research I, 57: 1278–1294.
  • Fu-Lin E. Chu, Eric D. Lund, Paul R. Littreal, Kate E. Ruck, Ellen Harvey. (2009). Species-specific differences in long-chain n-3 essential fatty acid, sterol, and steroidal ketone production in six heterotrophic protist species.  Aquatic Biology, 6: 159-172.
  • Eric D. Lund, Fu-Lin E. Chu, Paul R. Littreal, Kate E. Ruck, Ellen Harvey. (2009). An investigation of the mechanism(s) of sterol synthesis and dietary sterol conversion in the heterotrophic protists Oxyrrhis marina and Gyrodinium dominans. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 374: 150-159.
  • Fu-Lin E. Chu, Eric D. Lund, Paul R. Littreal, Kate E. Ruck, Ellen Harvey, Jean-René Le Coz, Yanic Marty, Jeanne Moal and Philippe Soudant. (2008). Sterol production and phytosterol bioconversion in two species of heterotrophic protists, Oxyrrhis marina and Gyrodinium dominans. Marine Biology, 156:155-169.
  • Chu, Fu-Lin E.  Eric D. Lund, and Jennifer A. Podbesek (2008). Effects of triclosan on the oyster parasite, Perkinsus marinus and its host, the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Journal of Shellfish Research, 27:769-774.
  • Eric D. Lund, Fu-Lin E. Chu, Ellen Harvey and Richard Adlof (2008). Mechanism(s) of  “essential nutrient upgrading” in two species of heterotrophic protists: Oxyrrhis marina and Gyrodinium dominans. Marine Biology, 155:23-36.
  • Chu Fu-Lin . E., E. D. Lund, and J. A. Podbesek.  (2008). Quantitative significance of n-3 essential fatty acid contribution by heterotrophic protists in marine pelagic food webs. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 354:85-95.
  • Soudant P. R. Leite, F-L. E. Chu, A. Villalba and L. Cancela. (2008).  Bivalves – Perkinsus spp. Interactions. In: Proceeding of the workshop for the analysis of the impact of Perkinsosis to the European shellfish industry, pp: 78-109. Publication, Foundacion CETMAR, Vigo, Spain 2008.
  • Encomio V. G. and F-L. E. Chu (2007). Heat shock protein (Hsp70) expression and thermal tolerance in sublethal heat shocked eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) infected with the parasite Perkinsus marinus. Diseases in Aquatic Organisms, 76 : 252-260.
  • Delaporte, M., F-L. E. Chu, C. Langdon , J. Moal , C. Lambert, J-F. Samain and P. Soudant. (2007) Changes in biochemical and hemocyte parameters of the Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas fed T-Iso supplemented with lipid emulsions rich in eicosapentaenoic fatty acid. Journal of Experimental Biology and Ecology, 343: 261-275.
  • Lund, E. D., F-L. E. Chu, P. Soudant and E. Harvey. (2007). Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the eastern oyster, has a requirement for dietary sterols. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A, 146:141-147..
  • Chu, F-L. E., and E. D. Lund. (2006). Viability, infectivity and fatty acid synthetic activity of Perkinsus marinus meront cells incubated in estuarine and artificial seawaters. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. Dis Aquat Org., 71(2): 131-9.
  • Veloza, A. J., F-L. E. Chu and K.W. Tang. (2006). Trophic modification of essential fatty acids by heterotrophic protists and its effects on the fatty acid composition of the copepod Acartia tonsa. Marine Biology, 148: 779 – 788.
  • Soudant, P. F-L. E. Chu, and Eric D. Lund. (2005). Assessment of the cell viability of cultured perkinsus marinus (perkinsea), a parasitic protozoan of the eastern oyster, crassostrea virginica, using sybrgreen-propidium iodide double staining and flow cytometry. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 52:492-499
  • Lund E D., P. Soudant, F-L. E. Chu, E. Harvey, S. Bolton and A.  Flowers. (2005). Effects of the drug triclosan on growth, viability and fatty acid synthesis in the oyster protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 67:217-224.
  • Encomio, V. G. and F-L. E. Chu. (2005). Seasonal variation of heat shock protein (hsp70) in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) infected with Perkinsus marinus (Dermo). Journal of Shellfish Research, 24:167-175.
  • Encomio V.G., S.M. Stickler, S.K. Allen, Jr., and F-L. E. Chu. (2005). Performance of “natural Dermo-resistant” oyster stocks: Survival, disease, growth, condition and energy reserves. Journal of Shellfish Research, 24: 143-155.
  • Complete List of Publications
Published and Registered Patent
  • Chu, F.-L. E. and S. Ozkizilcik. (1998). Complex protein- walled microcapsules containing lipid-walled microcapsules. PATENT  (patent #: 5,776,490; date of patent: July 7, 1998).

Faculty Awards
  • VIMS Dean’s 2007 Woman in Marine Science Award (2008).
  • VIMS Outstanding Faculty Researcher Award (1997)

Current/ Past Professional Memberships
  • World Aquaculture Society 
  • National Shellfisheries Association 
  • American Society of Parasitiogists 
  • European Association of Fish Pathologists
Current/Past Collaborative / Interdisciplinary Efforts
  • Aswani Volety (Florida Gulf Coast University) and Philippe Soudant (Université   de Bretagne Occidentale, France): Evaluation of toxicity of Deep Water Horizon oil spill and dispersants on the reproductive processes of  the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica.
  • Kam M. Tang (VIMS): Planktonic biochemistry and nutrition of winter flounder juveniles.

  • Richard Adlof (USDA): lipid metabolism in the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus. Trophic upgrading by heterotrophic marine protists.

  • Philippe Soudant (Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France): Lipid biochemistry; Essential fatty acids and immune responses; flowcytometric technology. 

  • Yanic Marty (Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France): Lipid biochemistry. 

  • Christopher Langdon (Oregon State University): Essential fatty acids and immune responses. 

  • Jean-Fracois Samain (IFREMER, France): Essential fatty acids and immune responses. 

  • Albert Choi (Cheju University Korea): Reproductive physiology and diseases of marine bivalves.

  • Bassem Allam (Stony Brook University): The biochemistry of the clam parasite, QPX.