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Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Ryan Carnegie

Research Associate Professor

Email : [[carnegie]]
Phone : (804) 684-7713
Office : Chesapeake Bay Hall N109
Department : Aquatic Health Sciences

Education
  • BA in Biology from Rutgers University
  • MA in Marine Science from VIMS
  • PhD in Marine Biology from the University of Maine
Shellfish Pathology Site

Click here to visit the Shellfish Pathology site.

Advisory on Bonamia exitiosa in Crassostrea virginica

Status of the Major Oyster Diseases in Virginia, 2009-2012

Research Interests
  • Parasitology and invertebrate pathology; evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions; aquaculture health management; shellfish restoration.
Current Projects
  • Determining the disease contribution to natural mortality of oysters in Chesapeake Bay (funded by the NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office).
  • Influence of oyster reef elevation on the health of Crassostrea virginica (funded by the NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office).
  • A holistic approach to oyster restoration and management in the Piankatank and Rappahannock Rivers, Virginia (co-P.I. with Roger Mann, funded by the NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office)
  • Assessing the impacts of emerging harmful algal bloom species on shellfish restoration and aquaculture in Chesapeake Bay (co-P.I. with Kimberly Reece, Wolfgang Vogelbein, and Thomas Harris, funded by Virginia Sea Grant).
  • Evolutionary ecology of the oyster Crassostrea virginica and its parasites.
  • Phylogeography of Bonamia parasites.
  • Life cycle of Haplosporidium nelsoni.
Selected Publications
  • R.B. Carnegie, and E.M. Burreson. Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni. In: Fish Parasites: Pathobiology and Protection (P.T.K. Woo and K. Buchmann, eds.). CABI Publishing, Oxfordshire, UK. In press.
  • R.B. Carnegie, and E.M. Burreson. 2011. Declining impact of an introduced pathogen: Haplosoridium nelsoni in the oyster Crassostrea virginica in Chesapeake Bay. Marine Ecology Progress Series 432:1-15.
  • Hill, K.M., R.B. Carnegie, N. Aloui-Bejaoui,R. El Gharsalli, D. White, N.A. Stokes, and E.M. Burreson. 2010. Observation of a Bonamia sp. infecting the oyster Ostrea stentina in Tunisia, and aconsideration of its phylogenetic affinities. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 103: 179-185
  • Ford, S.E., N.A. Stokes, E.M. Burreson, E. Scarpa, R.B. Carnegie, J.N. Kraeuter, and D. Bushek. 2009. Minchinia mercenariae n. sp. (Haplosporidia) in the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria: implications of a rare parasite in a commercially important host. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 56: 542-551.
  • Hine, P.M., R.B. Carnegie, E.M. Burreson, and M.Y. Engelsma. 2009. Inter-relationships of haplosporidians deduced from ultrastructural studies. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 83: 247-256.
  • Robalino, J., R.B. Carnegie, N. O’Leary, S.A. Ouvry-Patat, E. de la Vega, S. Prior, P.S. Gross, C.L. Browdy, R.W. Chapman, K.L. Schey, and G. Warr. 2009. Contributions of functional genomics and proteomics to the study of immune responses in the Pacific White Leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 128: 110-118.
  • Carlsson, J., R.B. Carnegie, J.F. Cordes, M.P. Hare, A.T. Leggett, and K.S. Reece. 2008. Evaluating recruitment contribution of a selectively bred Crassostrea virginica oyster aquaculture line used in restoration efforts. Journal of Shellfish Research 27: 1117-1124.
  • Audemard, C., R.B. Carnegie, and E.M. Burreson. 2008. Shellfish tissue evaluated for Perkinsus spp. using the Ray’s fluid thioglycollate medium culture assay can be used for downstream molecular assays. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 80: 235-239.
  • Audemard, C., R.B. Carnegie, M.J. Bishop, C.H. Peterson, and E.M. Burreson. 2008. Interacting effects of temperature and salinity on Bonamia sp. parasitism in the Asian oyster Crassostrea ariakensis. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 98 (3): 344-350.
  • Carnegie, R.B., N.A. Stokes, C. Audemard, M.J. Bishop, A.E. Wilbur, T.D. Alphin, M.H. Posey, C.H. Peterson, and E.M. Burreson. 2008. Strong seasonality of Bonamia sp. infection and induced Crassostrea ariakensis mortality in Bogue and Masonboro Sounds, North Carolina, USA. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 98 (3): 335-343.
  • Audemard, C., R.B. Carnegie, N.A. Stokes, M.J. Bishop, C.H. Peterson, and E.M. Burreson. 2008. Effects of salinity on Bonamia sp. survival in the Asian oyster Crassostrea ariakensis. Journal of Shellfish Research 27 (3): 535-540.
  • Logan, C.R., M.B. Evans, M. Ward, J.L. Scott, R.B. Carnegie, and C.L. Van Dover. 2008. Comparative ultrastructure of digestive diverticulae in bathymodiolin mussels: discovery of an unknown spherical inclusion (SIX) in digestive cells of a seep mussel. Journal of Shellfish Research 27: 97-105.
  • Van Dover, C.L., M.E. Ward, J. Underdown, M.A. Whalen, C.A. Gustafson, B. Anderson, J. Scott, and R.B. Carnegie. 2007. A fungal epizootic in mussels at a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Marine Ecology 28: 54-62.
  • Bishop, M.J., R.B. Carnegie, N.A. Stokes, C.H. Peterson, and E.M. Burreson. 2006. Predicting the outcome of a non-native oyster introduction: facilitation of an enzootic parasite. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 325: 145-152.
  • Hare, M.P., S.K. Allen, Jr., P. Bloomer, M.D. Camara, R.B. Carnegie, J. Murfree, M. Luckenbach, D. Meritt, C. Morrison, K. Paynter, K.S. Reece, and C.G. Rose. 2006. A genetic test for recruitment enhancement in Chesapeake Bay oysters, Crassostrea virginica, after population supplementation with a disease tolerant strain. Conservation Genetics 7: 717-734.
  • Camara, M.D., S.K. Allen, Jr., R.B. Carnegie, and K.S. Reece. 2006. Out-crossing among commercial strains of the northern quahog, Mercenaria mercenaria: Survival, growth, and implications for selective breeding. Journal of Shellfish Research 25(2): 403-416.
  • Carnegie, R.B., E.M. Burreson, P.M. Hine, N.A. Stokes, C. Audemard, M.J. Bishop, and C.H. Peterson. 2006. Bonamia perspora n. sp. (Haplosporidia), a parasite of the oyster Ostreola equestris, is the first Bonamia species known to produce spores. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 53(4): 232-245.
  • Azevedo, C., P Balseiro, G. Casal, C. Gestal, R. Aranguren, N.A. Stokes, R.B. Carnegie, B. Novoa, E.M. Burreson, and A. Figueras. 2006. Ultrastructural and molecular characterization of Haplosporidium montforti n. sp., parasite of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 92: 23-32.
  • Johnson, P.T.J., J.E. Longcore, D.E. Stanton, R.B. Carnegie, J.D. Shields, and E.R. Preu. 2006. Chytrid fungal infections of Daphnia pulicaria: development, ecology, pathology and phylogeny of Polycaryum laeve. Freshwater Biology 51: 634-648.
  • Carnegie, R.B.  2005.  Effects in mollusc culture. In K. Rohde (ed). Marine Parasitology, pp. 391-398. CSIRO Publishing, Australia.
  • Bower, S.M., B. Goh, G.R. Meyer, R.B. Carnegie, and A. Gee.  2005.  Epizootiology and detection of nocardiosis in oysters.  In P. Walker, R. Lester, and M.G. Bondad-Reantaso (eds).  Diseases in Asian Aquaculture V, pp. 249-262.  Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila.
  • Meyer, G.R., S.M. Bower, and R.B. Carnegie. 2005. Sensitivity of a digoxigenin-labelled DNA probe in detecting Mikrocytos mackini, causative agent of Denman Island Disease (mikrocytosis) in oysters. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 88: 89-94.
  • Patat, S.A., R.B. Carnegie, C. Kingsbury, P.S. Gross, R. Chapman, and K.L. Schey. 2004. Antimicrobial activity of histones from hemocytes of Pacific white shrimp. European Journal of Biochemistry 271: 4825-4833.
  • Carnegie, R.B. and N.Cochennec-Laureau. 2004. Microcell parasites of oysters: Recent insights and future trends. Aquatic Living Resources 17: 519-528.
  • Burreson, E.M., N.A. Stokes, R.B. Carnegie, and M.J. Bishop. 2004. Bonamia sp. (Haplosporidia) found in non-native oysters, Crassostrea ariakensis, in Bogue Sound, North Carolina. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 16 (1): 1-9.
  • Reece, K.S., W.L. Ribeiro, P.M. Gaffney, R.B. Carnegie, and S.K. Allen Jr. 2004. Microsatellite marker development and analysis in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica: Confirmation of null alleles and non-Mendelian segregation ratios. Journal of Heredity 95 (4): 346-352.
  • Bower, S.M., R.B. Carnegie, B. Goh, S.R.M. Jones, G.J. Lowe, and M.W.S. Mak. 2004. Preferential PCR amplification of parasitic protistan SSU rDNA from metazoan tissues. J. Eukaryotic Microbiology 51 (3): 325-332
  • Carnegie, R.B., B.J. Barber, and D.L. Distel. 2003. Detection of the oyster parasite Bonamia ostreae by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 55 (3): 247-252
  • Carnegie, R.B., G.R. Meyer, J. Blackbourn, N. Cochennec-Laureau, F.C.J. Berthe, and S.M. Bower. 2003. Molecular detection of the oyster parasite Mikrocytos mackini, and a preliminary phylogenetic analysis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 54(3): 219-227
  • Carnegie, R.B.,and B.J. Barber. 2001. Growth and mortality of Ostrea edulis at two sites on the Damariscotta River estuary, Maine USA. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 32(2): 75-81
  • Carnegie, R.B., B.J. Barber, S.C. Culloty, A.J. Figueras, and D.L. Distel. 2000. Development of a PCR assay for detection of the oyster pathogen Bonamia ostreae (Pichot et al. 1980), and support for its inclusion in the Haplosporidia. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 42(3): 199-206
  • Barber, B.J., R.B. Carnegie, C.V. Davis, and W. Mook. 1996. Effect of timing of seed deployment on growth and mortality of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, affected by Juvenile Oyster Disease (JOD). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 27(4): 443-448
Professional Memberships
  • National Shellfisheries Association
  • American Society of Parasitologists
  • European Association of Fish Pathologists
  • Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation
  • East Coast Shellfish Growers Association
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • World Aquaculture Society