For molluscan diseases Haplosporidiosis and Perkinosis
The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is a Paris, France-based international advisory organization on infectious animal diseases. The OIE is the official arbiter of the World Trade Organization for issues involving living animal products, including wild or aquacultured marine animals. Since 1924, the OIE has been responsible for promoting and coordinating research into the surveillance and control of animal diseases throughout the world. Serious diseases that should be contained from accidental geographic spread are designated "notifiable" by the OIE. This designation can restrict the export of animal products from a country that has the disease. Outbreaks of notifiable diseases must be reported to the OIE by member countries.
Research laboratories around the world with expertise in the identification of OIE notifiable diseases are designated as OIE Reference Laboratories. Reference Laboratories serve as an advisory resource for the OIE and as an identification resource for researchers and government agencies around the world. Reference Laboratories are also obligated to develop and standardize diagnostic protocols for relevant disease agents and to provide a diagnostic service for researchers around the world; reference laboratories receive no funds from the OIE.
The Shellfish Pathology Laboratory at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science is the sole OIE Reference Laboratory for the molluscan diseases Haplosporidiosis and Perkinsosis, which affect shellfish populations worldwide. The OIE-designated Reference Expert is Dr. Ryan B. Carnegie. Other Reference Laboratory personnel include Dr. Kimberly Reece (molecular diagnoses and phylogenetics of Perkinsus spp. and Haplosporidia); Ms. Nancy Stokes (molecular diagnoses of Perkinsus spp. and Haplosporidia); and Ms. Rita Crockett (histology and microscopic diagnostics).
Perkinsus marinus and Perkinsus olseni are both OIE notifiable pathogens. Perkinsus marinus is the causative agent of Dermo disease in oysters along the East and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the United States. Perkinsus olseni is an important pathogen in abalone in Australia and in clams of the genus Ruditapes in Europe, Japan and Korea. A variety of other molluscs are also infected with P. olseni, which has a very wide host range.
Haplosporidium nelsoni, causative agent of MSX disease in oysters along the east coast of North America, is no longer an OIE notifiable pathogen, but it remains a pathogen of concern. It is also present in California, Korea, Japan, and France. Haplosporidium costale, causative agent of SSO disease in oysters along the northeast coast of North America, has been listed as an OIE “Other Significant Disease.”
See the links below for disease overviews and OIE-recommended diagnostic methods from the OIE diagnostic manual.
- Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX Disease): (pdf)
- Haplosporidium costale (SSO Disease): (pdf)
- Perkinsus spp.: (pdf)