Papers in press

Behringer , D.C. , M.J. Butler, and J.D. Shields (in press) Effect of PaV1 Infection on Caribbean Spiny Lobster (Panulirus argus) movement, condition, and survival. Marine Ecology Progress Series.

Butler , M.J., D.C. Behringer, and J.D. Shields (in press) Transmission of a pathogenic virus (PaV1) and its effects on the survival of juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.

Peer-reviewed and invited papers

Li, C., J.D. Shields, R.E. Ratzlaff, and M.J. Butler. (2008) Pathology and hematology of the Caribbean spiny lobster experimentally infected with Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1). Virus Research 132: 104-113. (Contact [[jeff]] for a reprint or find it online at Science Direct)

Li, C. and J.D. Shields. (2007) Characterization and primary culture of hemocytes from the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. In: Cai, S.L. (ed.), 5th World Chinese Symposium for Crustacean Aquaculture, Ocean Press, Beijing, China. Transactions of the Chinese Crustacean Society 5: 25-35.

Li, C. and J.D. Shields. (2007) Primary cell culture of hemocytes from the spiny lobster and their susceptibility to Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 94: 48-55  PDF

Montgomery-Fullerton, M.M., R.A. Cooper, K. Kauffman, J.D. Shields and R.E. Ratzlaff. (2007) Detection of Panulirus argus virus 1 by PCR in Caribbean spiny lobsters. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 76: 1-6. PDF

Salierno, J.D., J.D. Shields, A.Z. Murphy, G.E. Hoffman, and A.S. Kane. (2007) Altered c-Fos expression demonstrates neuronal stress in mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, exposed to Pfiesteria shumwayae and Chaetoceros concavicornis. Marine Biology 152: 835-843.PDF

Small, H.J., Shields, J.D., Hudson , K.L., Reece, K.S. (2007) Molecular detection of the Hematodinium sp. infecting the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Journal of Shellfish Research 26: 131-136. PDF

Small, H.J., J.D. Shields, D.M. Neil, A.C. Taylor & G.H. Coombs. (2007) Differences in enzyme activities between two species of Hematodinium, parasitic dinoflagellates of crustaceans.  Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 94: 175-183. PDF

Small H.J., Shields, J.D., Moss J.A. & Reece, K.S. (2007) Conservation in the first internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) in Hematodinium species infecting crustacean hosts found in the United Kingdom and Newfoundland. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 75: 251-258. PDF

Shields, J.D. and R.M. Overstreet. (2007)  Parasites, symbionts, and diseases, pp. 299-417.  In: The blue crab Callinectes sapidus. (V. Kennedy and L.E. Cronin, eds.).  University of Maryland Sea Grant College, College Park , Maryland . [[jeff, Ask me for details]].

Shields, J.D. and M. Segonzac (2007) New nemertean worms (Carcinonemertidae) on bythograeid crabs  from Pacific hydrothermal vent sites. Journal of Crustacean Biology 27: 681-692. PDF

Shields, J.D., D.M. Taylor , P.G. O’Keefe, E. Colbourne, and E. Hynick  (2007) Epidemiological determinants in outbreaks of bitter crab disease (Hematodinium sp.) in snow crabs, Chionoecetes opilio from Newfoundland, Canada. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 77: 61-72. PDF

Wheeler, K., J.D. Shields and D.M. Taylor. (2007) Pathology of Hematodinium sp. infections in snow crabs (Chionoecetes opilio) from Newfoundland , Canada . Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 95: 93-100. PDF

Li, Caiwen, J.D. Shields, H.J. Small, K.S. Reece, C.L. Hartwig, R. Cooper, and RE. Ratzlaff. (2006) Diagnosis of Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1) in the Caribbean spiny lobster using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 72: 185-192  PDF

Behringer, D.C., Jr., MlJ. Butler, III, and J.D. Shields (2006) Avoidance of disease in social lobsters. Nature 441:421 PDF Supplemental material

Johnson, P.T.J, J.E. Longcore, D.E. Stanton, R.B. Carnegie, J.D. Shields, E.R. Preu, C. Lucarotti. (2006) Chytrid infection of Daphnia pulicaria: development, ecology, pathology and phylogeny of Polycaryum laeve (Stempell, 1903). Freshwater Biology 51: 634-648. PDF

Maniscalco, A.M. & J.D. Shields (2006) Histopathology of idiopathic lesions in the eyes of Homarus americanus from Long Island Sound. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 91: 88-97.  PDF

 Shields, J.D., F.J. Stephens and J.B. Jones. (2006) Chapter 5: Pathogens, parasites and other symbionts, 146-204) In: Lobsters: biology, management, aquaculture and fisheries. (ed. B.F. Phillips) Blackwell Scientific, UK. ISBN: 10:1-4051-2657-4. [[jeff, Ask me for details]].

Hoeg, J.T., H. Glenner & J.D. Shields. (2005) Chapter 4.6. Cirripedia Thoracica and Rhizocephala (barnacles), pp. 154-165. In: K. Rohde (ed), Ecology of Marine Parasites. Blackwell Scientific.  PDF

Kiryu, Y., V.S. Blazer, W.K. Vogelbein, H. Kator & J.D. Shields. (2005) Factors influencing the sporulation and encystment of Aphanomyces invadans, etiological agent of ulcerative mycosis in Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus. Mycologia 97:569-575.  PDF

Litaker, R.W., K.A. Steidinger, P.L. Mason, J.H. Landsberg, J.D. Shields, K.S. Reece, L. W. Haas, W.K. Vogelbein, M.W. Vandersea, S.R. Kibler & P.A. Tester (2005) The reclassification of Pfiesteria shumwayae: Pseudopfiesteria, gen. nov. Journal of Phycology 41: 643-651.  PDF

Shields, J.D., D.M. Taylor , S.G. Sutton, P.G. O’Keefe, D. Ings & A. Party (2005) Epidemiology of bitter crab disease (Hematodinium sp.) in snow crabs, Chionoecetes opilio from Newfoundland, Canada. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 64: 253-264.  PDF

Stentiford, G.D. & J.D. Shields. (2005) A review of the parasitic dinoflagellates Hematodinium species and Hematodinium-like infections in marine crustaceans. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 66: 47-70. PDF

 Johnson, R.A., J. Zabrecky, Y. Kiryu & J. D Shields. (2004) Infection experiments with Aphanomyces invadans in four species of estuarine fishes. Journal of Fish Diseases 27: 1-9. PDF

Shields, J.D. & D.C. Behringer, Jr. (2004) Pathology of a new herpes-like virus from the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 59: 109-118. PDF

Ward, M.E., J.D. Shields & C.L. Van Dover. (2004) Parasitism in species of Bathymodiolus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) mussels from deep-sea seep and hydrothermal vents. Diseases of Marine Organisms 62:1-16. PDF 

Kiryu, Y., J.D. Shields, W.K. Vogelbein, H. Kator & V.S. Blazer. (2003) Infectivity and pathogenicity of the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans in Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 54: 135-146. PDF

Lovko, V.J., W.K. Vogelbein, J.D. Shields, L.W. Haas & K.S. Reece. (2003) A new larval fish bioassay for testing the pathogenicity of Pfiesteria spp. (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 39: 600-609. PDF

Mason, P.L., W.K. Vogelbein, L. Haas & J.D. Shields. (2003) A new stripping technique for small, lightly armored heterotrophic dinoflagellates. Journal of Phycology 39: 253-258. PDF

Pestal, G.P., D.M. Taylor, J.M. Hoenig, J.D. Shields & R. Pickavance. (2003) Monitoring the presence of the lethal parasite Hematodinium sp. in snow crabs from Newfoundland. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 53: 67-75. PDF

Shields, J.D. (2003) Research priorities for diseases of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Bulletin of Marine Science 72: 505-517. [Reprint not the best quality.]  PDF

Shields, J.D., C. Scanlon & A. Volety. (2003) Aspects of the pathophysiology of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, infected with the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi. Bulletin of Marine Science 72: 519-535. [Reprint not the best quality.] PDF

 Berry, J.P., K.S. Reece, K.S. Rein, D.G. Baden, L.W. Haas, W.L. Ribeiro, J.D. Shields, R.V. Snyder, W.K. Vogelbein & R.E. Gawley. (2002) Are Pfiesteria Species Toxicogenic? Evidence Against Production of Ichthyotoxins by Pfiesteria shumwayae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99: 10970-10975. PDF

Friedman, C.S., W. Biggs, J.D. Shields & R.P. Hedrick. (2002) Transmission of withering syndrome in black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii Leach. Journal of Shellfish Research 21: 817-824. PDF

Kiryu, Y., J.D. Shields, W.K. Vogelbein, D.E. Zwerner, H. Kator & V.S. Blazer. (2002) Induction of skin ulcers in Atlantic menhaden by injection and water-borne exposure to the zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 14: 11-24. PDF

Vogelbein, W.K., V.J. Lovko, J.D. Shields, K.S. Reece, P. Mason, L.W. Haas & C.C. Walker. (2002) Pfiesteria shumwayae kills fish by micropredation not exotoxin secretion. Nature 418: 967-970. PDF online version

Shields, J.D. (2001) Ovicides julieae n. gen., n. sp. (Nemertea: Carcinonemertidae) on xanthid crabs from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21: 304-312. PDF

 Shields, J.D. (2001) Infection and mortality studies in blue crabs infected with Hematodinium perezi, pp. 50-60. In: Proceedings of the Blue crab mortality Symposium (V.L. Guillory, H. Perry, S. VanderKooy, eds.), Gulf States Marine Fisheries (Ocean Springs, Mississippi) Publication Number 90. PDF not available. 

Vogelbein, W.K., J.D. Shields, L. Haas, D.E. Zwerner & K.S. Reece. (2001) Pfiesteria and the comparative pathology of estuarine versus laboratory-exposed fishes. Environmental Health Perspectives 109: 687-694. PDF

Friedman, C.S., K.B. Andree, K. Beauchamp, J.D. Moore, T.T. Robbins, J.D. Shields & R.P. Hedrick (2000) 'Candidatus Xenohaliotis americanus', a newly described pathogen of abalone, Haliotis spp., along the west coast of North America. International Journal for Systematic and Evolutionary Bacteriology 50: 847-855.  PDF

Messick, G. & J.D. Shields. (2000) The epizootiology of a parasitic dinoflagellate, Hematodinium sp., in American blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 43: 139-152. PDF

Shields, J.D. & C.M. Squyars. (2000) Mortality and hematology of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, experimentally infected with the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi. Fishery Bulletin 98: 139-152. PDF

Stevens, D. and J.D. Shields, M. Whittaker and N. McBeath. 2000 Paddle crabs: Biology. Seafood New Zealand 8 (10): 57-58. PDF not available

Stevens, D., J.D. Shields, M. Whittaker and N. McBeath. (2000) Paddle crabs: Fishery. Seafood New Zealand 8 (11): 29-30 PDF

Shields, J.D., M. Buchal and C.S. Friedman. (1998) Microencapsulation as a potential control technique against sabellid worms in abalone aquaculture. Journal of Shellfish Research 17(1): 79-83.  PDF 

Shields, J.D. and L.A. Ward. (1998) Tiarinion texopallium, a new species of parasitic isopod infecting the majid crab Tiarinia sp. from the Great Barrier Reef. Journal of Crustacean Biology 18: 590-596. PDF  

Gomez-Gutierrez, J. and J.D. Shields. (1998) Range extension for Oculophryxus bicaulis Shields and Gómez (Isopoda, Dajidae) in the South China Sea. Crustaceana 71: 167-170. PDF

Shields, J.D. and J. Gómez-Gutierrez.. (1996) Oculophryxus bicaulis, a new genus and species of dajid isopod parasitic on the euphausiid Stylocheiron affine Hansen. International Journal for Parasitology 23: 261-268. PDF

Molloy, D.P., V.A. Roitman and J.D. Shields. (1996) Survey of the parasites of zebra mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) in Northwestern Russia, with comments on records of parasitism in Europea and North America. Journal of the Helminthological Society of Washington 63: 251-256. PDF

Hudson, D. and J.D. Shields. (1994) Hematodinium australis n. sp., a parasitic dinoflagellate of the sand crab, Portunus pelagicus and mud crab, Scylla serrata, from Moreton Bay, Australia. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 19: 109-119. PDF poor quality reproduction

Shields, J. D. (1994) The parasitic dinoflagellates of marine crustaceans. Annual Review of Fish Diseases 4: 241-271. PDF

Shields, J.D. (1993) Infestation and dispersion patterns of Carcinonemertes spp. on their crab hosts. Hydrobiologia 266: 45-56. Reprinted in Developments in Hydrobiology 89. PDF

Shields, J.D. and C.H. Earley. (1993) Cancrion australiensis new species (Isopoda: Entoniscidae) found in Thalamita sima (Brachyura: Portunidae) from Australia. International Journal for Parasitology 23: 601-608. PDF

Shields, J.D. and F.E.I. Wood. (1993) The impact of parasites on the reproduction and fecundity of the blue sand crab Portunus pelagicus from Moreton Bay, Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 92: 159-170. PDF

Hudson, D., N. Hudson and J.D. Shields. (1993) Infection of Trapezia spp. (Decapoda: Xanthidae) by Hematodinium sp. (Duboscquodinida: Syndinidae): a new family record of infection. Journal of Fish Diseases 16: 273-276. PDF

Shields, J.D. (1992) The parasites and symbionts of the crab Portunus pelagicus from Moreton Bay, eastern Australia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 12: 94-100. PDF

Shields, J.D., R.K. Okazaki and A.M. Kuris. (1991) Fecundity and the reproductive potential of Cancer anthonyi in southern California. Fishery Bulletin 89: 299-305. PDF

Kuris, A.M., S.F. Blau, A.J. Paul, J.D. Shields and D.E. Wickham. (1991) Infestation by brood symbionts and their impact on egg mortality in the red king crab, Paralithodes camtschatica, in Alaska: Geographic and temporal variation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48: 559-568. PDF

Shields, J.D. (1991) Reproductive ecology and fecundity of Cancer crabs. In: Crustacean egg production (A. Wenner and A.M. Kuris, eds.), Crustacean Issues 7: 193-213. Balkema, Rotterdam. PDF

Shields, J.D. (1990) Rhizophydium littoreum on the eggs of Cancer anthonyi: Pathogen or saprobe? Biological Bulletin 179: 201-206. PDF

Shields, J.D. and A.M. Kuris. (1990) Carcinonemertes wickhami n. sp. (Nemertea), an egg predator on the California lobster, Panulirus interruptus. Fishery Bulletin 88: 279-287. PDF

Shields, J.D., R.K. Okazaki and A.M. Kuris. (1990) Brood mortality and egg predation by Carcinonemertes epialti on the yellow crab, Cancer anthonyi. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47: 1275-1281. PDF

Shields, J.D., D.E. Wickham, S.F. Blau and A.M. Kuris. (1990) Some implications of egg mortality caused by symbiotic nemerteans for data acquisition and management strategies of the red king crab. Proceedings of the International Symposium on King and Tanner Crabs, Lowell Wakefield Symposium Series, Nov., 1989. Anchorage, Alaska, pp. 397-402. PDF

Shields, J.D., D.E. Wickham and A.M. Kuris. (1989) Carcinonemertes regicides n. sp. (Nemertea), a symbiotic egg predator on the red king crab, Paralithodes camtschatica, from Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67: 923-930. PDF

Macdonald, J., J.D. Shields and R.K. Zimmer-Faust. 1988. Acute toxicities of eleven metals to early life history stages of the yellow crab, Cancer anthonyi. Marine Biology 98: 201-207. PDF

Shields, J.D. and A.M. Kuris. (1988a) An in vitro analysis of egg mortality in Cancer anthonyi: The role of symbionts and temperature. Biological Bulletin 174: 267-275. PDF

Shields, J.D. and A.M. Kuris. (1988b) Temporal variation in abundance of the egg predator Carcinonemertes epialti (Nemertea) and its effect on egg mortality of its host, the shore crab, Hemigrapsus oregonensis. Hydrobiologia 156: 31-38. Reprinted in Developments in Hydrobiology 43.  PDF

Shields, J.D. (1987) The pathology and mortality of the lung fluke Haematoloechus longiplexus (Trematoda) in Rana catesbeiana. Journal of Parasitology 73: 1005-1013. PDF

Shields, J.D. (1985) Surface morphology and description of Otobothrium kurisi new species (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from a hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. International Journal for Parasitology 15: 635-643. PDF 

Shields, J.D. and A.M. Kuris. (1985) Ectopic infections of Portunion conformis (Isopoda: Entoniscidae) in Hemigrapsus spp. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 45: 122-124. PDF

Unrefereed Publications

Butler, M.J., Behringer, D. and Shields, J.D. (2007) Resource Conditions: Discovery of a Viral Disease Infecting Lobster and Impact of Sponge Fishing on Hard-bottom Communities, p. 139-142. In: Keller, B.D., and F.C. Wilmot, eds. 2007. Connectivity: science, people and policy in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Colloquium proceedings, 19-21 August 2004, Key West, FL. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series NMSP-07-xx. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Sanctuary Program, Silver Spring, MD. 272 pp.

Shields, J.D. (2007) Publishing a specialty journal: The Journal of Crustacean Biology. BioOne Report.

Towle, D.W., N. Jayasundara, H.J. Small and J.D. Shields (2007) Microarray evidence for specificity of expression of three genes encoding antibacterial proteins in lobsters (Homarus americanus) injected with Vibrio bacteria. Bulletin of the Mountain Desert Island Biological Laboratory 46:64

Shields, J.D., Taylor, D.M., Sutton, S.G., O'Keefe, P.G., Ings, D.W., Pardy, A.L. (2004) Aspects of Epidemiology of Bitter Crab Disease (Hematodinium sp.) in Snow Crabs, Chionoectes opilio from Newfoundland, Canada, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document - 2004/077,

Shields, J.D. and several others. (2002) Aquatic Animal Health Brochure, VIMS. For graduate student recruitment.

Taylor, D. M., G. P. Pestal, J. M. Hoenig and J. D. Shields. (2002) Sensitivity and specificity of macroscopic criteria for diagnosing Hematodinium sp. infections in snow crabs. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Fisheries Canada, DFO Research Document. PDF

Dufour, R. et al. (2001) Report on the ICES study group crab, Copenhagen, 2001. ICES Living Natural Resources Workgroup.

Shields, J. D. (1999) Safety protocols for Pfiesteria toxicity bioassays in the Aquatic biomonitoring facility. VIMS Internal Documentation and Registration. 22 pp. [NB: this is an internal document that was reviewed by several committees at VIMS.]

Shields J. D., D. H. Niebuhr, M. P. Lynch (1995) Fiddling around with fiddler crabs. Brochure developed for Virginia Coastal Resources Program in Education.

Shields J. D., D. H. Niebuhr, M. P. Lynch (1995) Oysters and oyster reefs. Brochure developed for Virginia Coastal Resources Program in Education. (Similar to the fiddler crab brochure.)


The dynamics and mechanisms of egg mortality in Cancer anthonyi (Decapoda). 1987. PhD Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, 107 pp.

Intraspecific interactions among Echinostoma liei (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Balb/c mice. 1983. MS Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 41 pp.