Hypothetical differences in how natural (R) and constructed (L) dunes may respond when impacted by storm waves. Roots and fungi are thought to make natural dunes more resistant to storm erosion as compared to constructed dunes, which lack that internal structure. But the instability of a built dune also allows for more transport of sediment along its face, which can lead to dunes with milder slopes. This can in turn reduce water levels during future storms and may promote faster dune recovery. The new NOAA-funded project will examine these hypothetical differences to better inform coastal managers.