Nancy A.  Stokes

Marine Scientist Senior

Email: [[stokes]]
Phone: (804) 684-7410, 7337
Office: Chesapeake Bay Hall, N111
Department: Aquatic Health Sciences

  • M.S. in Microbiology & Immunology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University

  • B.S. in Biology, Erskine College

  • Development and application of DNA-based molecular diagnostics (PCR and ISH) for disease organisms of shellfish

  • Identification and characterization of putative haplosporidians; molecular phylogeny of the haplosporidians

  • Process samples for identification of potential disease agents as Office International des Epizooties (OIE) reference laboratory for Haplosporidians and Perkinsus

  • Train students and visiting scientists in molecular detection techniques of shellfish pathogens
  • Elucidation of the life cycle of the oyster parasite Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX)

  • Investigation of possible threat of oyster herpes virus to oyster seed producers in the United States

  • Carnegie, R.B., K.M. Hill, N.A. Stokes, and E.M. Burreson. 2013. The haplosporidian Bonamia exitiosa is present in Australia, but the identity of the parasite described as Bonamia (formerly Mikrocytos) roughleyi is uncertain. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology in press.

  • Stentiford, G.D., K.S. Bateman, N.A. Stokes, and R.B. Carnegie. 2013. Haplosporidium littoralis sp. nov.: a crustacean pathogen within the Haplosporida (Cercozoa, Ascetosporea) Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 105: 243-252.
  • Lynch, S.A., A. Villalba, E. Abollo, M. Engelsma, N.A. Stokes, and S.C. Culloty. 2013. The occurrence of haplosporidian parasites, Haplosporidium nelsoni and Haplosporidium sp., in oysters in Ireland. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 112:208-212.
  • Dungan, C.F., R.B. Carnegie, K.M. Hill, C.B. McCollough, S.E. Laramore, C.J. Kelly, N.A. Stokes, and J. Scarpa.  2012.  Diseases of oysters Crassostrea ariakensis and C. virginica reared in ambient waters from the Choptank River, Maryland and the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 101:173-183.

  • Cáceres-Martínez, J., M. García Ortega, R. Vásquez-Yeomans, T. de Jesús Pineda García, N.A. Stokes, and R.B. Carnegie.  2012.  Natural and cultured populations of themangrove oyster Saccostrea palmula from Sinaloa, Mexico, infected by Perkinsus marinus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 110:321-325.
  • Molloy, D.P., L. Giambérini, N.A. Stokes, E.M. Burreson, and M.A. Ovcharenko. 2012. Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. (Haplosporidia): a parasite of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771). Parasitology 139:463-477.
  • Ford, S.E., J. Paterno, E. Scarpa, N.A. Stokes, Y. Kim, E.N. Powell, and D. Bushek.  2011.  Widespread survey finds no evidence of Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) in Gulf of Mexico oysters.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 93:251-256.
  • Hill, K.M., R.B. Carnegie, N. Aloui-Bejaoui, R. El Gharsalli, D.M. White, N.A. Stokes, and E.M. Burreson.  2010.  Observation of a Bonamia sp. infecting the oyster Ostrea stentina in Tunisia, and a consideration of its phylogenetic affinities.  Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 103:179-185.
  • Ford, S.E., N.A. Stokes, E.M. Burreson, E. Scarpa, R.B. Carnegie, J.N. Kraeuter, and D. Bushek.  2009.  Minchinia mercenariae n. sp. (Haplosporidia) in the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria:  Implications of a rare parasite in a commercially important host.  Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 56:542-551.
  • Audemard, C., R.B. Carnegie, N.A. Stokes, M.J. Bishop, C.H. Peterson, and E.M. Burreson.  2008.  Effects of salinity on Bonamia sp. survival in the Asian oyster Crassostrea ariakensis. Journal of Shellfish Research 27:535-540.
  • Carnegie, R.B., N.A. Stokes, C. Audemard, M.J. Bishop, A.E. Wilbur, T.D. Alphin, M.H. Posey, C.H. Peterson, and E.M. Burreson.  2008.  Strong seasonality of Bonamia sp. infection and induced Crassostrea ariakensis mortality in Bogue and Masonboro Sounds, North Carolina, USA.  Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 98:335-343.
  • Dungan, C.F., K.S. Reece, R.M. Hamilton, N.A. Stokes, and E.M. Burreson.  2007.  Experimental cross-infections by Perkinsus marinus and P. chesapeaki in three species of sympatric Chesapeake Bay oysters and clams.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 76:67-75.
  • Mason, P.L., R.W. Litaker, H.J. Jeong, J.H. Ha, K.S. Reece, N.A. Stokes, J.Y. Park, K.A. Steidinger, M.W. Vandersea, S. Kibler, P.A. Tester, and W.K. Vogelbein.  2007.  Description of a new genus of Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellate, Luciella gen. nov. (Dinophyceae), including two new species:  Luciella masanensis sp. nov. and Luciella atlantis sp. nov. Journal of Phycology 43:799-810.
  • Litaker, R.W., M.W. Vandersea, S.R. Kibler, K.S. Reece, N.A. Stokes, F.M. Lutzoni, B.A. Yonish, M.A. West, M.N.D. Black, and P.A. Tester.  2007.  Recognizing dinoflagellate species using ITS rDNA sequences. Journal of Phycology 43:344-355.
  • Nunan, L.M., D.V. Lightner, C.R. Pantoja, N.A. Stokes, and K.S. Reece.  2007.  Characterization of a rediscovered haplosporidian parasite from cultured Penaeus vannamei. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 74:67-75.
  • Bishop, M.J., R.B. Carnegie, N.A. Stokes, C.H. Peterson, and E.M. Burreson.  2006.  Complications of a non-native oyster introduction:  Facilitation of a local parasite. Marine Ecology Progress Series 325:145-152
  • Carnegie, R.B., E.M. Burreson, P.M. Hine, N.A. Stokes, C. Audemard, M.J. Bishop, and C.H. Peterson.  2006.  Bonamia perspora n. sp. (Haplosporidia), a parasite of the oyster Ostreola equestris, is the first Bonamia species known to produce spores. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 53:232-245.
  • Azevedo, C., P. Balseiro, G. Casal, C. Gestal, R. Aranguren, N.A. Stokes, R.B. Carnegie, B. Novoa, E. M. Burreson, and A. Figueras.  2006. Ultrastructural and molecular characterization of Haplosporidium montforti n. sp., parasite of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 92:23-32.
  • Friedman, C.S., R.M. Estes, N.A. Stokes, C.A. Burge, J.S. Hargove, B.J. Barber, R.A. Elston, E.M. Burreson, and K.S. Reece.  2005.  Herpesvirus in juvenile Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas from Tomales Bay, California, coincides with summer mortality episodes. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 63:33-41.
  • Reece, K.S., M.E. Siddall, N.A. Stokes, and E.M. Burreson.  2004.  Molecular phylogeny of the Haplosporidia based on two independent gene sequences.  Journal of Parasitology 90:1111-1122.
  • Burreson, E.M., N.A. Stokes, R.B. Carnegie, and M.J. Bishop.  2004.  Bonamia sp. (Haplosporidia) found in nonnative oysters Crassostrea ariakensis in Bogue Sound, North Carolina.  Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 16:1-9.
  • Litaker, R.W., M.W. Vandersea, S.R. Kibler, K.S. Reece, N.A. Stokes, K.A. Steidinger, D.F. Millie, B.J. Bendis, R.J. Pigg, and P.A. Tester.  2003.  Identification of Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae) and Pfiesteria-like organisms using internal transcribed spacer-specific PCR assays.  Journal of Phycology 39:754-761.
  • Anderson, R. S., B. S. Kraus, S. E. McGladdery, K. S. Reece, and N. A. Stokes. 2003. A thraustochytrid protist isolated from Mercenaria mercenaria: molecular characterization and host defense responses. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 15:183-194.

  • Reece, K. S. and N. A. Stokes. 2003. Molecular analysis of a haplosporidian parasite from cultured New Zealand abalone Haliotis iris. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 53:61-66.

  • Stokes, N. A., L. M. Ragone Calvo, K. S. Reece, and E. M. Burreson. 2002. Molecular diagnostics, field validation, and phylogenetic analysis of Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX), a pathogen of the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 52:233-247.

  • Sunila, I., N. A. Stokes, R. Smolowitz, R. C. Karney, and E. M. Burreson.  2002.  Haplosporidium costale (Seaside Organism), a parasite of the eastern oyster, is present in Long Island Sound.  Journal of Shellfish Research, 21:113-118.   

  • Stokes, N. A. and E. M. Burreson.  2001.  Differential diagnosis of mixed Haplosporidium costale and Haplosporidium nelsoni infections in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, using DNA probes.  Journal of Shellfish Research 20:207-213. 

  • Renault, T., N. A. Stokes, B. Chollet, N. Cochennec, F. Berthe, and E. M. Burreson.  2000.  Haplosporidiosis in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, from the French Atlantic coast. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 42:207-214.   

  • Yarnall, H. A., K. S. Reece, N. A. Stokes and E. M. Burreson.  2000.  A quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction assay for the oyster pathogen Perkinsus marinus.  Journal of Parasitology 86:827-837.   

  • Burreson, E. M., N. A. Stokes and C. S. Friedman.  2000.  Increased virulence in an introduced pathogen: Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica.  Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 12:1-8. (Invited feature article; Publication Awards Committee, American Fisheries Society, voted this paper as 2001 Best Paper Award for Journal of Aquatic Animal Health during 2000.)   

  • Stokes, N. A., M. E. Siddall and E. M. Burreson.  1995.  Detection of Haplosporidium nelsoni (Haplosporidia: Haplosporidiidae) in oysters by PCR amplification.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 23:145-152.   

  • Siddall, M. E., N. A. Stokes and E. M. Burreson.  1995.  Molecular phylogenetic evidence that the phylum Haplosporidia has an alveolate ancestry.  Molecular and Biological Evolution 12:573-581.   

  • Stokes, N. A. and E. M. Burreson.  1995.  A sensitive and specific DNA probe for the oyster pathogen Haplosporidium nelsoni.  Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 42:350-357.   

  • Stokes, N. A., M. E. Siddall and E. M. Burreson.  1995.  Small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence of Minchinia teredinis (Haplosporidia: Haplosporidiidae) and a specific DNA probe and PCR primers for its detection.  Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 65:300-308.

Professional affiliations

National Shellfisheries Association

Dr. Ryan Carnegie