Literature on Hematodinium, including some related papers

Appleton, P.L. & Vickerman, K. (1996). Presence of apicomplexan-type micropores in a parasitic dinoflagellate, Hematodinium sp. Parasitology Research 82: 279-282. pdf

Appleton, P.L. & Vickerman, K. (1998). In vitro cultivation and developmental cycle in culture of a parasitic dinoflagellate (Hematodinium sp.) associated with mortality of the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) in British waters. Parasitology 116: 115-130. pdf

Bower, S.M., Carnegie, R.B., Goh, B., Jones, S.R.M., Lowe, G.J. & Mak, M.W.S. (2004). Preferential PCR amplification of parasitic protistan small subunit rDNA from metazoan tissues. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 51: 325-332. pdf

Bower, S.M., Meyer, G.R., Phillips, A., Workman, G. & Clark, D. (2003). New host and range extension of bitter crab syndrome in Chionoecetes spp. caused by Hematodinium sp. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 23: 86-91.

Bower, S.M., Myer, G.R. & Boutillier, J.A. (1993). Diseases of spot prawns (Pandalus platyceros) caused by an intracellular bacterium and a Hematodinium like protozoa. Journal of Shellfish Research 12: 135.

Briggs, R.P. & McAliskey, M. (2002). The prevalence of Hematodinium in Nephrops norvegicus from the western Irish Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 82: 427-433. pdf

Burkholder, J.M. (1998). Implications of harmful microalgae and heterotrophic dinoflagellates in management of sustainable marine fisheries. Ecological Applications 8: S37-S62. pdf

Bushek, D., Dungan, C.F. & Lewitus, A.J. (2002). Serological affinities of the oyster pathogen Perkinsus marinus (Apicomplexa) with some Dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 49: 11-16.  pdf

Chang, E.S. (2005). Stressed-out lobsters: crustacean hyperglycemic hormone and stress proteins. Integrative and Comparative Biology 45: 43-50.  pdf

Chatton, E. & Poisson, R. (1930). The existence, in blood of parasite dinoflagellate crabs: Hematodinium perezi NG, N.SP. Comptes Rendus Des Seances De La Societe De Biologie Et De Ses Filiales 105: 553-557.  pdf

Chatton, E. & Poisson, R. (1930). Sur l'existence, dans le sang des crabes, de peridiniens parasites: Hematodinium perezi n. g., n. sp. (Syndinidae). C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris 105: 653-557.

Coats, D.W. (1999). Parasitic life styles of marine dinoflagellates. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 46: 402-409.  pdf

Dawe, E.G. (2002). Trends in prevalence of bitter crab disease caused by Hematodinium sp. in snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) throughout the Newfoundland shelf. Alaska Sea Grant Report 02-01: 385-400. 

Dawe, E.G., Paul, A.J., Dawe, E.G., Elner, R., Jamieson, G.S., Kruse, G.H., Otto, R.S., Sainte-Marie, B., Shirley, T.C. & Woodby, D. (2002). Trends in prevalence of bitter crab disease caused by Hematodinium sp. in snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) throughout the Newfoundland and Labrador continental shelf. Crabs in cold water regions: Biology, management, and economics: 385-400.

Dungan, C.F., Hamilton, R., Bushek, D., Cardinal, J. & Lewitus, A. (2000). Serological affinities between Perkinsus marinus and some parasitic dinoflagellates. Journal of Shellfish Research 19: 643-644.

Eaton, W.D., Love, D.C., Botelho, C., Meyers, T.R., Imamura, K. & Koeneman, T. (1991). Preliminary results on the seasonality and life cycle of the parasitic dinoflagellate causing bitter crab disease in Alaskan tanner crabs (Chionoecetes bairdi). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 57: 426-434.  pdf

Field, R.H. & Appleton, P.L. (1995). A Hematodinium-like dinoflagellate infection of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus: observations on pathology and progression of infection. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 22: 115-128.  pdf

Field, R.H. & Appleton, P.L. (1996). An indirect fluorescent antibody technique for the diagnosis of Hematodinium sp. infection of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 24: 199-204.  pdf

Field, R.H., Chapman, C.J., Taylor, A.C., Neil, D.M. & Vickerman, K. (1992). Infection of the Norway bobster Nephrops norvegicus by a Hematodinium-like species of dinoflagellate on the west coast of Scotland. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 13: 1-15.  pdf

Field, R.H., Hills, J.M., Atkinson, R.J.A., Magill, S. & Shanks, A.M. (1998). Distribution and seasonal prevalence of Hematodinium sp. infection of the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) around the west coast of Scotland. ICES Journal of Marine Science 55: 846-858.  pdf

Fong, K.H. & Dunham, J.S. (2007). Inshore Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) biology in a central coast inlet, British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Shellfish Research Vol 26: 581-95.  pdf

Frischer, M.E., Lee, R.F., Sheppard, M.A., Mauer, A., Rambow, F., Neumann, M., Brofft, J.E., Wizenmann, T. & Danforth, J.M. (2006). Evidence for a free-living life stage of the blue crab parasitic dinoflagelate, Hematodinium sp. Harmful Algae 5: 548-557.  pdf

Gallien, L. (1938). Sur la presence dans le sang de Platyonychus latipes Penn., d'un peridinien parasite Hematodinium perezi Chatton et Poisson. Bull, biol. FranceBelg 72: pp. 261-267.

Groisillier, A., Massana, R., Valentin, K., Vaulot, D. & Guillou, L. (2006). Genetic diversity and habitats of two enigmatic marine alveolate lineages. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 42: 277-291.  pdf

Gruebl, T., Frischer, M.E., Sheppard, M., Neumann, M., Maurer, A.N. & Lee, R.F. (2002). Development of an 18S rRNA gene-targeted PCR-based diagnostic for the blue crab parasite Hematodinium sp. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 49: 61-70.  pdf

Hamilton, K., Morritt, D. & Shaw, P. (2007). Is genetic variability of the alveolate parasite Hematodinium host-specific? Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 54: 41S-41S.  pdf

Horner, R.A., Garrison, D.L. & Plumley, F.G. (1997). Harmful algal blooms and red tide problems on the U.S. west coast. Limnology and Oceanography 42: 1076-1088.  pdf

Hudson, D.A. (1995). Biochemical parameters of the serum of the sand crab, Portunus pelagicus, with reference to the parasitic dinoflagellate, Hematodinium australis. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 15: 202-205.  

Hudson, D.A. & Adlard, R.D. (1994). PCR techniques applied to Hematodinium spp. and Hematodinium-like dinoflagellates in decapod crustaceans. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 20: 203-206.  pdf

Hudson, D.A. & Adlard, R.D. (1996). Nucleotide sequence determination of the partial SSU rDNA gene and ITS1 region of Hematodinium cf. perezi and Hematodinium-like dinoflagellates. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 24: 55-60.  pdf

Hudson, D.A., Hudson, N.B. & Shields, J.D. (1993). Infection of Trapezia spp. (Decapoda: Xanthidae) by Hematodinium sp. (Duboscquodinida: Syndinidae): a new family record of infection. Journal of Fish Diseases 16: 273-276.  pdf

Hudson, D.A. & Shields, J.D. (1994). Hematodinium australis n. sp., a parasitic dinoflagellate of the sand crab Portunus pelagicus from Moreton Bay, Australia. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 19: 109-119.  pdf

Hudson, K.L., Shields, J.D. & Reece, K.S. (2001). Molecular diagnostics for the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi. Journal of Shellfish Research 20: 546.

Imamura, K. & Woodby, D. (1994). Marketability testing of Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) infected by a Hematodinium-like dinoflagellate, the probable cause of bitter crab syndrome. REPORT.  pdf

Johnson, P.T. (1977). Viral Disease of Blue-Crab, Callinectes-Sapidus - Histopathology and Differential-Diagnosis. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 29: 201-209.  

Johnson, P.T. (1986). Parasites of Benthic Amphipods, Dinoflagellates (Duboscquodinida, Syndinidae). Fishery Bulletin 84: 605-614.

Khattra, J.S., Gresoviac, S.J., Kent, M.L., Myers, M.S., Hedrick, R.P. & Devlin, R.H. (2000). Molecular detection and phylogenetic placement of a microsporidian from english sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) affected by X-cell pseudotumors. Journal of Parasitology 86: 867-871.  pdf

Kuvardina, O.N., Leander, B.S., Aleshin, V.V., Mylnikov, A.P., Keeling, P.J. & Simdyanov, T.G. (2002). The phylogeny of colpodellids (Alveolata) using small subunit rRNA gene sequences suggests they are the free-living sister group to Apicomplexans. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 49: 498-504.  pdf

Leander, B.S., Kuvardina, O.N., Aleshin, V.V., Mylnikov, A.P. & Keeling, P.J. (2003). Molecular phylogeny and surface morphology of Colpodella edax (Alveolata): insights into the phagotrophic ancestry of Apicomplexans. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 50: 334-340.  pdf

Lee, R.F.D. & Frischer, M.E. (2004). The decline of the blue crab. American Scientist 92: 548-553.  pdf

Li, Y.Y., Xia, X.A., Wu, Q.Y., Liu, W.H. & Lin, Y.S. (2008). Infection with Hematodinium sp. in mud crabs Scylla serrata cultured in low salinity water in southern China. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 82: 145-150.  pdf

Love, D.C., Rice, S.D., Moles, D.A. & Eaton, W.D. (1993). Seasonal prevalence and intensity of bitter crab dinoflagellate infection and host mortality in Alaskan Tanner crabs Chionoecetes bairdi from Auke Bay, Alaska, USA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 15: 1-7.  pdf

MacLean, S.A. & Ruddell, C.L. (1978). Three new crustacean hosts for the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi (Dinoflagellata: Syndinidae). Journal of Parasitology 64: 158-160.  pdf

Messick, G.A. (1994). Hematodinium perezi infections in adult and juvenile blue crabs Callinectes sapidus from coastal bays of Maryland and Virginia, USA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 19: 77-82. pdf

Messick, G.A. (1997). Epizootiology and disease progression of a parasitic dinoflagellate infecting blue crabs. Journal of Shellfish Research 16: 320-321.

Messick, G.A. (1998). Diseases, parasites, and symbionts of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) dredged from Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Crustacean Biology 18: 533-548. pdf

Messick, G. (2001). A review of potential diseases of blue crabs. Bulletin of National Research Institute of Aquaculture: 81-87.

Messick, G.A., Jordan, S.J. & Van Heukelem, W.F. (1999). Salinity and temperature effects on Hematodinium sp in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Journal of Shellfish Research 18: 657-662.

Messick, G.A. & Shields, J.D. (2000). Epizootiology of the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. in the American blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 43: 139-152. pdf

Meyers, T.R., Botelho, C., Koeneman, T.M., Short, S. & Imamura, K. (1990). Distribution of bitter crab dinoflagellate syndrome in southeast Alaskan Tanner crabs Chionoecetes bairdi. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 9: 37-43. pdf

Meyers, T.R., Koeneman, T.M., Botelho, C. & Short, S. (1987). Bitter crab disease: a fatal dinoflagellate infection and marketing problem for Alaskan Tanner crabs Chionoecetes bairdi. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 3: 195-216. pdf

Meyers, T.R., Lightner, D.V. & Redman, R.M. (1994). A dinoflagellate-like parasite in Alaskan spot shrimp Pandalus platyceros and pink shrimp P. borealis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 18: 71-76. pdf

Morado, J.F., Jensen, P.C., Hauser, L., Lowe, V., Califf, K., Roberson, N., Shavey, C. & Woodby, D. Species identity and life history of Hematodinium, the causative agent of bitter crab syndrome in Northeast Pacific snow, Chionoecetes opilio, and Tanner, C. bairdi, crabs. REPORT. pdf

Morado, J.F., Meyers, T.R. & Otto, R.S. (2000). Distribution and prevalence of bitter crab syndrome in snow (Chionoecetes opilio) and tanner (C. bairdi) crabs of the Bering Sea, 1988-1996. Journal of Shellfish Research 19: 646-647.

Newman, M.W. (1977). Hematodinium disease of blue crabs. Disease diagnosis and control in North American marine aquaculture.: 132-136.

Newman, M.W. (1988). Hematodinium disease of blue crabs. Disease Diagnosis and Control in North American Marine Aquaculture.: 211-212.

Newman, M.W. & Johnson, C.A. (1975). A disease of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) caused by a parasitic dinoflagellate, Hematodinium sp. Journal of Parasitology 61: 554-557. pdf

Newman, N.W. (1977). Hematodinium disease of blue crabs. Developments Aquacult. Fish. Sci. 6: 132[long dash]134,illust.

Pestal, G.P., Taylor, D.M., Hoenig, J.M., Shields, J.D. & Pickavance, R. (2003). Monitoring the prevalence of the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. in snow crabs Chionoecetes opilio from Conception Bay, Newfoundland. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 53: 67-75. pdf

Ridgway, I.D. (2007). A preliminary study of the effect of meteorological factors on the live export trade of the Scottish Nephrops trawling fishery. Journal of Shellfish Research 26: 611-615. pdf

Robinson, M., Hayes, M., Allen, B., Thorne, K., Jenkins, E. & Stafford, P. (2005). Monitoring the prevalence of the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium in Irish brown crab fisheries. REPORT. pdf

Sawyer, T.K., Lewis, E.J., Galasso, M.E. & Ziskowski, J.J. (1984). Gill Fouling and Parasitism in the Rock Crab, Cancer-Irroratus Say. Marine Environmental Research 14: 355-369.

Sheppard, M., Rambow, F., Frischer, M.E. & Lee, R.F. (2002). Routes of Hematodinium sp. transmission into blue crabs. Journal of Shellfish Research 21: 438.

Sheppard, M., Walker, A., Frischer, M.E. & Lee, R.F. (2003). Histopathology and prevalence of the parasitic dinoflagellate, Hematodinium sp, in crabs (Callinectes sapidus, Callinectes similis, Neopanope sayi, Libinia emarginata, Menippe mercenaria) from a Georgia estuary. Journal of Shellfish Research 22: 873-880.

Shields, J.D. (1991). The Community Ecology of the Parasites and Symbionts of Portunus-Pelagicus Evidence for Positive and Negative Interactions. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 31: 408.

Shields, J.D. (1992). Parasites and symbionts of the crab Portunus pelagicus from Moreton Bay, eastern Australia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 12: 94-100. pdf

Shields, J.D. (1994). The parasitic dinoflagellates of marine crustaceans. Annual Review of Fish Diseases 4: 241-271. pdf

Shields, J.D. (1997). Prevalence of Hematodinium perezi in blue crabs from Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Journal of Shellfish Research 16: 321.

Shields, J.D. (2003). Research priorities for diseases of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Bulletin of Marine Science 72: 505-517. pdf

Shields, J.D. & Messick, G.A. (1997). Aspects of the life cycle of Hematodinium perezi in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Journal of Shellfish Research 16: 357.

Shields, J.D. & Overstreet, R.M. (2007) Diseases, parasites, and other symbionts. The blue crab. pdf

Shields, J.D., Scanlon, C. & Volety, A. (2003). Aspects of the pathophysiology of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, infected with the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi. Bulletin of Marine Science 72: 519-535. pdf

Shields, J.D. & Squyars, C.M. (2000). Mortality and hematology of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, experimentally infected with the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi. Fishery Bulletin 98: 139-152. pdf

Shields, J.D., Stephens, F.J. & Jones, B. (2006) Pathogens, parasites and other symbionts.

Shields, J.D., Taylor, D.M., O'Keefe, P.G., Colbourne, E. & Hynick, E. (2007). Epidemiological determinants in outbreaks of bitter crab disease (Hematodinium sp.) in snow crabs Chionoecetes opilio from Conception Bay, Newfoundland, Canada. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 77: 61-72. pdf

Shields, J.D., Taylor, D.M., Sutton, S.G., Collins, P.W., Ings, D.W. & Pardy, A.L. (2005). Aspects of the epidemiology of bitter crab disease (Hematodinium sp.) in snow crabs, Chionoecetes opilio from Conception Bay, Newfoundland. Journal of Shellfish Research 24: 675.

Shields, J.D., Taylor, D.M., Sutton, S.G., O'Keefe, P.G., Ings, D.W. & Pardy, A.L. (2004). REPORT- Aspects of the epidemiology of bitter crab disease (Hematodinium sp.) in snow crabs, Chionoecetes opilio from Newfoundland, Canada. pdf

Shields, J.D., Taylor, D.M., Sutton, S.G., O'Keefe, P.G., Ings, D.W. & Pardy, A.L. (2005). Epidemiology of bitter crab disease (Hematodinium sp.) in snow crabs Chionoecetes opilio from Newfoundland, Canada. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 64: 253-264. pdf

Shumway, S.E., Burkholder, J.M. & Springer, J. (2006). Effects of the estuarine dinoflagellate Pfiesteria shumwayae (Dinophyceae) on survival and grazing activity of several shellfish species. Harmful Algae 5: 442-458. pdf

Skovgaard, A., Massana, R., Balague, V. & Saiz, E. (2005). Phylogenetic position of the copepod-infesting parasite Syndinium turbo (Dinoflagellata, Syndinea). Protist 156: 413-423. pdf

Small, H.J., Neil, D.M., Taylor, A.C., Atkinson, R.J.A. & Coombs, G.H. (2006). Molecular detection of Hematodinium spp. in Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus and other crustaceans. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 69: 185-195. pdf

Small, H.J., Shields, J.D., Hudson, K.L. & Reece, K.S. (2007). Molecular detection of Hematodinium sp. infecting the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Journal of Shellfish Research 26: 131-139. pdf

Small, H.J., Shields, J.D., Moss, J.A. & Reece, K.S. (2007). Conservation in the first internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) in Hematodinium species infecting crustacean hosts found in the UK and Newfoundland. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 75: 251-258. pdf

Small, H.J., Shields, J.D., Neil, D.M., Taylor, A.C. & Coombs, G.H. (2007). Differences in enzyme activities between two species of Hematodinium, parasitic dinoflagellates of crustaceans. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 94: 175-183. pdf

Small, H.J., Sturve, J., Bignell, J.P., Longshaw, M., Lyons, B.P., Hicks, R., Feist, S.W. & Stentiford, G.D. (2008). Laser-assisted microdissection: a new tool for aquatic molecular parasitology. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 82: 151-156. pdf

Small, H.J., Wilson, S., Neil, D.M., Hagan, P. & Coombs, G.H. (2002). Detection of the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium in the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus by ELISA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 52: 175-177. pdf

Stentiford, G.D., Chang, E.S., Chang, S.A. & Neil, D.M. (2001). Carbohydrate dynamics and the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH): effects of parasitic infection in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus). General and Comparative Endocrinology 121: 13-22. pdf

Stentiford, G.D., Evans, M., Bateman, K. & Feist, S.W. (2003). Co-infection by a yeast-like organism in Hematodinium-infected European edible crabs Cancer pagurus and velvet swimming crabs Necora puber from the English Channel. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 54: 195-202. pdf

Stentiford, G.D. & Feist, S.W. (2005). A histopathological survey of shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) from six estuaries in the United Kingdom. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 88: 136-146. pdf

Stentiford, G.D., Feist, S.W., Bateman, K.S. & Hine, P.M. (2004). Haemolymph parasite of the shore crab Carcinus maenas: pathology, ultrastructure and observations on crustacean haplosporidians. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 59: 57-68.

Stentiford, G.D., Green, M., Bateman, K., Small, H.J., Neil, D.M. & Feist, S.W. (2002). Infection by a Hematodinium-like parasitic dinoflagellate causes Pink Crab Disease (PCD) in the edible crab Cancer pagurus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 79: 179-191. pdf

Stentiford, G.D. & Neil, D.M. (2000). A rapid onset, post-capture muscle necrosis in the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.), from the West coast of Scotland. Journal of Fish Diseases 23: 251-263. pdf

Stentiford, G.D., Neil, D.M. & Atkinson, R.J.A. (2001). Alteration of burrow-related behaviour of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus during infection by the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 34: 139-156.

Stentiford, G.D., Neil, D.M. & Atkinson, R.J.A. (2001). The relationship of Hematodinium infection prevalence in a Scottish Nephrops norvegicus population to season, moulting and sex. ICES Journal of Marine Science 58: 814-823. pdf

Stentiford, G.D., Neil, D.M., Atkinson, R.J.A. & Bailey, N. (2000). An analysis of swimming performance in the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus L. infected by a parasitic dinoflagellate of the genus Hematodinium. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 247: 169-181. pdf

Stentiford, G.D., Neil, D.M. & Coombs, G.H. (1999). Changes in the plasma free amino acid profile of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus at different stages of infection by a parasitic dinoflagellate (genus Hematodinium). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 38: 151-157.

Stentiford, G.D., Neil, D.M. & Coombs, G.H. (2000). Alterations in the biochemistry and ultrastructure of the deep abdominal flexor muscle of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus during infection by a parasitic dinoflagellate of the genus Hematodinium. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 42: 133-141. pdf

Stentiford, G.D., Neil, D.M. & Coombs, G.H. (2001). Development and application of an immunoassay diagnostic technique for studying Hematodinium infections in Nephrops norvegicus populations. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 46: 223-229. pdf

Stentiford, G.D. & Shields, J.D. (2005). A review of the parasitic dinoflagellates Hematodinium species and Hematodinium-like infections in marine crustaceans. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 66: 47-70. pdf

Steven, C.R., Hunter-Cevera, K., Place, A.R., Sheppard, M. & Lee, D. (2003). A quantitative, real-time PCR assay to detect the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. in blue crabs, Calinectes sapidus. Journal of Shellfish Research 22: 355-356.

Taylor, A.C., Field, R.H. & Parslow-Williams, P.J. (1996). The effects of Hematodinium sp.-infection on aspects of the respiratory physiology of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 207: 217-228. pdf

Taylor, D.M. & Khan, R.A. (1995). Observations on the occurrence of Hematodinium sp. (Dinoflagellata: Syndinidae), the causative agent of bitter crab disease in Newfoundland snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 65: 283-288. pdf

Taylor, D.M., Pestal, G.P., Hoenig, J.M. & Shields, J.D. (2002). REPORT- Sensitivity and specificity of macroscopic criteria for diagnosing Hematodinium sp. infections in snow crabs. pdf

Tsitsatzardis, E., Patterson, G.W., Wikfors, G.H., Gladu, P.K. & Harrison, D. (1993). Sterols of Chaetoceros and Skeletonema. Lipids 28: 465-467.

Urban, D., Byersdorfer, S.C., Paul, A.J., Dawe, E.G., Elner, R., Jamieson, G.S., Kruse, G.H., Otto, R.S., Sainte-Marie, B., Shirley, T.C. &

Woodby, D. (2002). Bitter crab syndrome in Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi), Alitak Bay, Kodiak, Alaska 1991-2000. Crabs in cold water regions: Biology, management, and economics: 401-403.

Von der Heyden, S., Chao, E.E., Vickerman, K. & Cavalier-Smith, T. (2004). Ribosomal RNA phylogeny of bodonid and diplonemid flagellates and the evolution of Euglenozoa. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 51: 402-416. pdf

Walker, A., Sheppard, M., Lee, R.F. & Frischer, M. (2002). Hematodinium infection in blue crabs, spider crabs and stone crabs. Journal of Shellfish Research 21: 439.

Wheeler, K., Shields, J.D. & Taylor, D.M. (2007). Pathology of Hematodinium infections in snow crabs (Chionoecetes opilio) from Newfoundland, Canada. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 95: 93-100. pdf

Whittington, D.M., Bernstein, K.L. & Shields, J.D. (1997). Changes in aspects of the blood chemistry of blue crabs infected with Hematodinium perezi. Journal of Shellfish Research 16: 357-358.

Whittington, D.M., Fridley, D.S., Harmon, V.L. & Shields, J.D. (1997). In vitro culture of Hematodinium perezi from the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Journal of Shellfish Research 16: 321.

Wilhelm, G. (1999). Contribution to the knowledge of the velvet swimming crab Necora puber (Crustacea, Branchyura) in Mor-Braz (southern Brittany). Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France 124: 207-210.

Wilhelm, G. & Mialhe, E. (1996). Dinoflagellate infection associated with the decline of Necora puber crab populations in France. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 26: 213-219. pdf

Williams-Ryan, K.A. (1997) Occurance, histopathology and fine structural studies on Hematodinium sp. (Dinoflagellida: Syndinidae) parasitizing the snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio). Department of Biology. Memorial University of Newfoundland: St. John's, Newfoundland. pdf

Wrona, A.B., Sheppard, M.E., Lee, R.F. & Wiegert, R.G. (2003). Prevalence of parasitic Hematodinium sp. in Georgia blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus): A result of habitat degradation? Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts 88: 366.

Yarnall, H.A., Reece, K.S., Stokes, N.A. & Burreson, E.M. (2000). A quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction assay for the oyster pathogen Perkinsus marinus. Journal of Parasitology 86: 827-837. pdf