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Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Chemical Hygiene Plan

February 1991
January 1996 (revised)
May 1998 (revised)
April 2007 (reviewed)
July 2009 (see OSHA CFR 1910.1030)
May 2012

Office of Safety and Environmental Programs

School of Marine Science
Virginia Institute of Marine Science
College of William & Mary
Gloucester Point, Virginia 23062

WebPage Modified: 2 September 1998


TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION

A. Background
B. Purpose
C. Scope
D. VIMS/SMS Philosophy

II. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

A. Minimize Exposure
B. Minimize Risk
C. Ventilation
D. Use The Plan
E. Observe Exposure Limits
F. Hazardous Waste Disposal

III. RESPONSIBILITIES

A. Organization
B. Roles and Responsibilities

IV. LABORATORY FACILITIES

A. Design
B. Maintenance
C. Usage
D. Ventilation
E. Safety Recommendations

V. WORKING WITH CHEMICALS - RULES AND PROCEDURES

A. General Safety Rules
B. Accidents and Spills
C. Allergens and Embryotoxins
D. Moderate Chronic or High Acute Toxicity Chemicals
E. High Chronic Toxicity Chemicals
G. Flammables
H. Reactives
I. Corrosives
J. Compressed Gases
K. Handling Laboratory Equipment
L. Planning Laboratory Experiments
M. Required Prior Approvals

VI. PROCUREMENT/DISTRIBUTION/STORAGE

A. Procurement
B. Storage Areas
C. Storage Precautions
D. Transport
E. Laboratory Storage

VII. SIGNS AND LABELS

A. Containers
B. Other Signs and Labels

VIII. EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO SPILLS AND ACCIDENTS

IX. EMPLOYEE EXPOSURE DETERMINATION AND REDUCTION ACTIONS

A. Procedures
B. Exposure Reduction Actions

X. FUME HOOD MANAGEMENT

XI. INFORMATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM

A. Information
B. Training

XII. HOUSEKEEPING, MAINTENANCE, AND INSPECTIONS

A. Housekeeping
B. Inspections
C. Maintenance

XIII. MEDICAL PROGRAM

A. General
B. Emergency Medical Assistance
C. Medical Information
D. Physician's Written Opinion
E. Record keeping

XIV. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

A. General
B. Respirators
C. Eye Protection

XV. WASTE DISPOSAL

XVI. REVIEW AND UPDATE

XVII. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

XVIII. GLOSSARY

APPENDIX A
Protocol Outline for the Use of Particularly Hazardous Substances (PHS)

APPENDIX B
Formaldehyde Program



I. INTRODUCTION

A. Background

The Virginia Institute of Marine Science/School of Marine Science (VIMS/SMS) has many laboratory facilities of various sizes and levels of activity spread throughout the campus. VIMS/SMS faculty, staff, and students at these facilities analyze samples, conduct tests, perform research and teach in support of the Institute's missions. Individuals typically may be involved with samples or tests containing hazardous substances or constituents.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) regulation for "Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories," 29 CFR 1910.1450 (The Standard), requires that each facility engaged in the laboratory use of hazardous chemicals develop and implement a written program known as a "Chemical Hygiene Plan" which sets forth procedures, equipment, personal protective equipment (PPE) and work practices that will

1. Protect employees from the health hazards presented by hazardous chemicals used in that particular work place and

2. Keep employee exposures to the hazardous chemicals to which they may be occupationally exposed in their laboratories, below the permissible exposure limits specified in the standard.

B. Purpose

This Chemical Hygiene Plan (Plan) sets forth policies, procedures, equipment, and work practices that, when properly implemented, are capable of protecting employees from the health hazards presented by hazardous chemicals used in VIMS/SMS laboratories. The Chemical Hygiene Program's function is to ensure the proper implementation of controls to protect the safety and health of every VIMS/SMS employee.

This Plan is intended to meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1450, the OSHA standard for occupational exposures to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. A copy of the standard is available at the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs.

C. Scope

All VIMS/SMS employees and students who by the nature of their work may be exposed to hazardous chemicals in the course of their assignments, and all individuals whose primary duty is laboratory operations are required to follow the provisions of this Plan.

D. VIMS/SMS Philosophy

The individual bears primary responsibility for safety at VIMS/SMS.

Don't take chances

Obey all safety rules

If not sure--ASK

Don't hurry

USE COMMON SENSE

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II. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

In addition to the more detailed recommendations listed later on in this Plan, the following general principles for working with laboratory chemicals are established.

A. Minimize Exposure

It is prudent to minimize all chemical exposures. Since few laboratory chemicals are without hazards, general precautions for handling all laboratory chemicals should be adopted, rather than specific guidelines for particular chemicals. Inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact with chemicals should be avoided as a cardinal rule.

B. Minimize Risk

Under estimation of risk must be avoided. Even for substances of no known significant hazard, exposure should be minimized. Substances which present special hazards require that special precautions be taken. One should assume that any mixture will be more toxic than its most toxic component and that all substances of unknown toxicity are toxic.

C. Ventilation

Adequate ventilation always must be provided. The best way to prevent exposure to airborne substances is to prevent their escape into the working atmosphere by the use of fume hoods, exhaust fans, or other ventilation devices.

D. Use The Plan

The mandatory Chemical Hygiene Program established by this Plan is designed to minimize exposures to hazardous or potentially hazardous chemicals. The Plan should be a regular, continuing effort, not merely a standby or short-term activity. Its recommendations should be followed by academic teaching laboratories as well as by full-time research laboratories.

E. Observe Exposure Limits

The Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) of OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1000, as amended by VOSH (Virginia Occupational Safety and Health regulations), should not be exceeded. Permissible Exposure Limits and Threshold Limit Values (TLV) for specific substances may be found on many manufacturer's Safety Data Sheets (SDS).

F. Hazardous Waste Disposal

Properly dispose of all hazardous chemicals generated in the laboratory. Disposal request forms can be found in the Forms section of the VIMS web site.  Contact the Chemical Hygiene Officer for waste container labels. 

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III. RESPONSIBILITIES

A. Organization
The organizational structure for chemical hygiene follows the overall organizational structure of VIMS/SMS.

B. Roles and Responsibilities

1.
Dean and Director
The Dean and Director has ultimate responsibility for chemical hygiene for the Institute and must, with other administrators, provide continuing support for institutional chemical hygiene. The Dean and Director will appoint the Chemical Hygiene Officer.

2. Next Level Supervisors
Associate/Assistant Directors, Department Heads, and other Supervisors, also are responsible for supporting institution chemical hygiene within their respective organizations. Only by setting the example and demonstrating continuous support, can this Plan be implemented effectively.

3. Office of Safety and Environmental Programs
Develop, coordinate, implement, maintain, and monitor the VIMS/SMS Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP). Provide the Chemical Hygiene Officer as required under this Plan.

4. Chemical Hygiene Officer
The Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO) is responsible for providing technical guidance in the development and implementation of this Plan. The CHO should be qualified by training and experience to have the knowledge and competence to use the appropriate equipment and testing procedures to identify and evaluate various situations and to suggest abatement procedures for health and safety hazards. The appointment of the CHO will be made by the Dean and Director.

The CHO will work with administrators and other employees to develop and implement appropriate chemical hygiene policies and practices. The CHO will be aware of current legal requirements concerning regulated substances, see that appropriate audits are maintained, help project directors develop necessary precautions and adequate laboratory facilities, and suggest ways to improve the chemical hygiene program.

5. Principal Investigators, Project Supervisors, and Laboratory Supervisors
Principal Investigators, Project Directors, and Laboratory Supervisors have overall responsibility for chemical hygiene within the laboratory. These responsibilities include
a. Ensuring that laboratory workers know and follow the chemical hygiene rules, that protective equipment, when required, is available and in working order, and that appropriate training has been provided.
b. Providing regular, formal chemical hygiene and housekeeping inspections including routine inspections of safety and emergency equipment.
c. Knowing the current legal requirements for regulated substances used in his/her laboratory.
d. Determining the required levels of protective apparel and equipment and ensuring its use.
e. Ensuring that facilities and training for the proper use of hazardous materials being ordered/used in the laboratory are adequate.
f. Preparing, maintaining and updating as needed a list of hazardous chemicals and an accessible file of Safety Data Sheets (SDS) for all chemicals within his/her lab.

6. Laboratory Workers
Each laboratory worker is responsible for planning and conducting all operations in accordance with institutional chemical hygiene procedures. He/she must also develop and follow good personal chemical hygiene habits.


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IV. LABORATORY FACILITIES

A. Design

Each laboratory should have an appropriate general ventilation system suitable for that specific location, with air intake/exhaust located so as to avoid intake of contaminated air that exceeds PEL/TLV (Permissible Exposure Limit/Threshold Limit Values) levels. Each laboratory also must provide adequate, well-ventilated storage areas, laboratory hoods, and sinks. Where required, other safety equipment including eyewash fountains and drench showers, must be provided. Appropriate arrangements for waste storage and disposal must exist.

B. Maintenance

Chemical hygiene related equipment (hoods, incinerators, etc.) should undergo continuing inspection and be modified, improved, or repaired as needed.

C. Usage

The type of work being performed and its scale or level of effort must be appropriate to the size and type of the laboratory facility available and especially to the quality of the ventilation system.

D. Ventilation

1. General
Ventilation systems should provide a source of air for breathing and for input to local ventilation devices. It should not be relied on for protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory. It should ensure that laboratory air is continually replaced, preventing increase of air concentrations of toxic substances during the working day. It should direct air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building.
2. Hoods
Laboratory hoods with at least 2.5 linear feet of hood space per person should be provided for every 2 workers that spend most of their time working directly with hazardous chemicals. Each hood, if possible, should have a monitoring device to allow convenient confirmation of adequate hood performance before use. If this is not possible, work with substances of unknown toxicity should be avoided or an alternate type of ventilation device should be provided.
3. Other Devices
Ventilated storage cabinets, canopy hoods, snorkels, etc., should be provided as needed. Each canopy hood and snorkel should have a separate exhaust duct.
4. Special Areas
Exhaust air from glove boxes and isolation rooms should be passed through scrubbers or another treatment facility before release into the regular exhaust system. Cold/warm rooms should have provisions for rapid escape and for escape in case of power failure.
5. Modifications
Modifications to ventilation systems should be made only if testing shows that these modifications will ensure that worker protection from airborne toxic substances will continue to be adequate.
6. Performance
Four to twelve room air changes/hour is normally adequate general ventilation if local exhaust systems such as hoods are used as the primary method of control. General air flow should not be turbulent and should be relatively uniform throughout the area, with no high velocity or static areas. Airflow into and within the hood should not be excessively turbulent. Hood face velocity should be adequate. Typically, the face velocity would be 80 - 100 FPM (feet per minute). Ventilation systems should be evaluated upon installation, regularly monitored (every year), and reevaluated whenever changes are made.

E. Safety Recommendations

For information on safety hazards which may have implications on chemical hygiene, contact the Safety Office.

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V. WORKING WITH CHEMICALS - RULES AND PROCEDURES

All individuals as described in Paragraph I.C above are required to know, understand, and follow all VIMS/SMS rules and procedures for working with chemicals.

A. General Safety Rules
1.
Follow all safety instructions carefully.
2. Perform only authorized experiments. Researchers who are responsible for their own experimental programs should inform others working in the area of chemicals being used and their potential hazards.
3. No "horse play." This is extremely dangerous and unnecessary.
4. Avoid working alone.
5. Do not eat, drink, smoke, chew gum, or apply cosmetics or lip balm in areas where laboratory chemicals are present. Wash hands before conducting these activities.
6. Confine long hair and loose clothing.
7. Wear shoes at all times in the laboratory. Open-toed shoes, sandals, or "flip flops" are not to be worn in laboratory areas.

B. Accidents and Spills
1. If you suspect that the rescue squad or other emergency services might be needed, they are needed. Have someone contact them immediately either through the VIMS operator or directly by calling 9-911. Ask the VIMS operator to contact the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs.
2. Eye contact: promptly flush eyes with water for a prolonged period (15 minutes) and seek medical attention.
3. Ingestion: encourage the victim to drink large amounts of water. Seek immediate medical attention. Refer to the SDS for additional information.
4. Skin contact: promptly flush the affected area with water and remove any contaminated clothing; use a safety shower when contact is extensive. Flush and rinse with a large volume of water for an extended time. If symptoms persist after washing, seek medical attention.
5. Report all accidents and unusual occurrences to the Laboratory Supervisor or Principal Investigator AND to the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs.

C. Allergens and Embryotoxins

When working with allergens such as diazomethane, isocyanates , and dichromates, wear suitable gloves to prevent hand contact. When working with embryotoxins such as organomercurials, lead compounds, and formamide, females of childbearing age should handle these substances only in a hood, using appropriate protective apparel (gloves) to prevent skin contact. Store these materials, properly labeled, in adequately ventilated areas in unbreakable secondary containers whenever possible. Notify supervisors and the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs of all incidents of exposure or spills.

D. Moderate Chronic or High Acute Toxicity Chemicals

Examples of these chemicals are hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen cyanide, and diisopropylflurophosphate. In addition to those rules cited above, the following procedures also should be followed when these chemicals are used in significant quantities:
1. Use and store these chemicals only in areas of restricted access that are posted with special warning signs. These areas should include a hood (with a face velocity of at least 100 Feet per Minute (FPM)) or other containment device when procedures may result in the generation of aerosols or vapors containing the chemical.
2. Always avoid skin contact by use of gloves and long sleeves. Check the chemical compatibility charts to be sure that gloves used are appropriate for the chemical used. Wash hands and arms immediately after use.
3. Assure that at least 2 persons are present if the material in use is highly toxic or of unknown toxicity.
4. Be prepared for accidents and spills. Store breakable containers of these substances in chemical-resistant trays. Cover work and storage surfaces, if possible, with removable, absorbent, plastic backed paper.

E. High Chronic Toxicity Chemicals

Examples of these chemicals are dimethylmercury, nickel carbonyl, benzo-a-pyrene, N-nitrosodiethylamine, and any other human carcinogen or substance with high carcinogenic potency in animals. In addition to all rules cited above, when working with amounts even as small as a few grams, the following procedures should also be employed:
1. Conduct all transfers and work with these substances in a "controlled area" (a restricted access hood, glove box, or portion of a lab, designated for use of high chronic toxicity chemicals, for which all people with access are aware of the substances being used and necessary precautions). Prepare a written plan for use and disposal of these materials and obtain the approval of the laboratory supervisor.
2. Decontaminate vacuum pumps and other equipment such as glassware in the hood before removing them from the controlled area. Decontaminate the controlled area before any other normal work is resumed there. On leaving the area, remove protective apparel and thoroughly wash hands, forearms, face, and neck.
3. If toxicologically significant amounts of these substances are being used on a regular basis (e.g., 3 or more times per week), a qualified physician should be consulted concerning desirability of regular medical surveillance. Should a physician be consulted, the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs and the worker's immediate supervisor should be given copies of the physician's suggestions or recommendations. The costs medical surveillance and evaluation will not be borne by the individual workers.
4. Adequate records should be kept of the amounts stored and used, dates of use, and names of users.
5. The controlled area should be conspicuously marked with warning signs and restricted access signs and all containers should be appropriately labeled. Contact the Chemical Hygiene Officer for assistance in developing proper signs.
6. These chemicals should be stored only in a ventilated, limited access area in appropriately labeled, unbreakable, chemically resistant secondary containers.

F. Carcinogens

There are many known carcinogenic materials, and the list is growing as the necessary studies of suspected carcinogens are completed. It is recommended that non-carcinogenic substances be substituted whenever possible for chemical carcinogens. If substitution is not possible, care is required to avoid exposures by inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Chemical carcinogens have been defined in two classes. Classes: The Experimental Animal Carcinogens which present a minimum hazard, and the Suspected and Known Human Carcinogens which present a high degree of hazard.

However, the only carcinogens specifically regulated as such in OSHA 29 CFR part 1910, Subpart Z are those for which individual regulatory standards have been issued. These standards are not replaced by the Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard. Users of these materials are expected to adhere to the provisions of all applicable substances-specific standards if employee exposure routinely exceeds the OSHA-mandated permissible exposure limit or (action level, if specified). Copies of these standards may be obtained from the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs. Substances currently regulated by OSHA as carcinogens are:

Asbestos N-Nitrosodimethylamine
4-Nitrobipenyl Vinyl Chloride
alpha-Naphtylamine Arsenic (inorganic)
4,4' - Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) Lead
Methy chloromethyl ether Cadmium
3,3' - Dichlorobenzidine (and salts) Benzene
bis-Chloromethyl ether Cotton dust
beta-Naphthylamine 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
Benzidine Acrylonitrile
4-Aminodiphenyl Ethylene oxide
Ethyleneimine Formaldehyde
beta-Propiolactone 4,4' - Methylenedianiline
2-Acetylaminofluorene 1,3 Butadiene
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene Methylene Chloride

In addition to all general safety rules cited above, when working with carcinogens, the following procedures should also be employed:
1. Prepare a written plan for use and disposal of these materials and obtain the approval of the laboratory supervisor. Forward a copy of the approved plan to the Chemical Hygiene Officer.
2. Consult the Safety Data Sheets and complete a Protocol Outline (Appendix A) and submit to the Chemical Hygiene Officer for review. A copy of this document should be filed with Principle Investigator and lab supervisor as well.
3. Conduct all transfers and work with these materials in a "Controlled Area" (a restricted access hood, glove box, or portion of a lab, designated for use of carcinogens, for which all people with access are aware of the substances being used and necessary precautions).
4. The controlled area must be marked with "Caution, Cancer Suspect Agent."
5. Entrances into areas where known carcinogens are used in appreciable quantities shall be posted: "Cancer-Suspect Agent, Authorized Personnel Only"
6. These chemicals should be stored only in a ventilated, limited access area in appropriately labeled, unbreakable, chemically resistant secondary containers.
7. Adequate records should be kept of the amounts stored and used, dates of use, and names of users.

G. Flammables

When handling Flammables, know the location and proper use of fire extinguishers and other pertinent safety equipment in your area. Never heat flammable liquids with an open flame, hot plate or uninsulated resistance heaters. Use a heating mantle, steam bath, or hot water bath. Electrically driven stirrers should be explosion proof. Handle solvents in exhaust hoods or a well-ventilated area. Keep solvents to a minimum in the lab. Since static electricity can start flammable solvent fires, ground containers when transferring from one container to another if the potential for sparking exists.

H. Reactives

Under certain conditions, reactive chemicals spontaneously may generate large quantities of heat, light, gases, or toxic chemicals. Reactive chemicals include explosives, acid-sensitive oxidizers and reducers, water sensitive materials, and pyrophorics. The hazards of reactive chemicals are specific to each chemical. Understand the possible dangers before use. Keep the amount used in the laboratory to a minimum. Use a hood sash, a safety shield, or a face shield. Segregate chemicals that are capable of explosive reactions with each other, and take greater precautions as the quantities of such chemicals increase.

I. Corrosives

Understand possible dangers before using. Store in proper containers. Inspect containers regularly for damage and see that lids fit properly. Follow all rules pertaining to good housekeeping, labeling, handling, and disposal. Avoid spillage. Use appropriate protective equipment. Keep sealed when not in use.

J. Compressed Gases

Store and transport compressed gas cylinders with the shipping caps on. Transport large cylinders only by means of a wheeled cart to which the cylinders are secured. Store and use in an upright position (Exception: Lecture bottles may be stored horizontally). Always securely clamp or chain cylinder to a firm support. Know contents of cylinder before making any connections. Always use a reducing valve or a pre-set pressure controller. Do not lubricate, modify, or tamper with a cylinder valve. Do not heat cylinders or store near a heat source.

K. Handling Laboratory Equipment

1.
Glassware
Do not use broken, chipped, starred or badly scratched glassware. Clean all glassware before and after use. Do not pick up broken glassware with bare hands. Use gloves, wet paper towels or sweep up. Protect hands with gloves, towels or tubing holder when inserting tubing into stoppers. Lubricate tubing with water or glycerine. Keep hand on tubing close to the stopper and out of line with the end of the tube. Protect glass vessels when heating over a burner. Handle hot beakers with proper size and type of tongs. Do not attempt to catch falling glassware.
2. Distillation Apparatus (Vacuum)
Do not use cracked, starred, badly scratched or creased flasks. They could implode. Use round bottom flasks (Max size of 5 liters). Use protective shatterproof shields. Use stirrer, boiling chips or capillary tube with inert gas flowing through it to prevent bumping. Use steam or heating mantles to heat flasks. Relieve vacuum slowly avoiding sudden pressure changes which could cause breakage or spattering of contents. Do not relieve vacuum until flask has cooled.
3. Distillation Apparatus (Atmospheric)
Secure glass joints with wire or clamps to prevent vapor leakage. Make sure system is vented and watch for plugging in the condenser. Use boiling chips or stirring to prevent bumping. Use heating mantle where possible. Avoid overheating still bottoms at end of distillation. Do not distill ethers until peroxides have been removed.
4. Vacuum Equipment
Apply vacuum only to glassware made for such service. Be sure filter crucible can't slip through holders. Shield desiccators that are under vacuum in metal desiccator guards. Do not subject glassware under vacuum to mechanical shock. Use protective shatterproof shields. Always wrap glass Dewar flasks with tape before use. Do not stopper glass flasks containing hot, condensable vapors. Check condition of mechanical vacuum pumps before using. Relieve vacuum in all parts of system before opening apparatus.
5. Pressure Equipment
Except for pressure transfer from carboys or other large containers, do not apply pressure to glassware. When transferring liquids by pressure, use a pressure reducing regulator valve. Never use direct line pressure. Do not use more than 4.5 psig pressure on glass carboys.  Inspect all equipment before using. See your supervisor for precise operating instructions. Provide adequate shielding. Set up equipment in a hood if reaction products are in any way toxic. Vent pressure in all parts of the system before opening.

L. Planning Laboratory Experiments

List all possible reactions, including side reactions, before starting. Think through all reactants, intermediates, and products in terms of flammability, toxicity, and reactivity hazards. Follow recognized safety procedures concerning protective equipment, housekeeping and handling.

In an unknown reaction, always start with small quantities of material and carefully observe reaction characteristics such as temperature, color, viscosity, and physical state.

If possible, obtain safety data on reactants and products from chemical reference books, laboratory analysis, or SDS. If possible, determine from thermodynamic and kinetic considerations the total quantity and rate of evolution of heat and gases to be released during the reaction. Provide adequate cooling, ventilation, pressure relief, and gas purging. Isolate the reaction vessel, if possible, and make frequent inspections of equipment during the reaction.

For each reactant, intermediate, or product, ask:
1. What is its flash point, flammability range, autoignition point, vapor pressure, and density?
2. Does it decompose, and if so, how rapidly and to what products? During storage, what is its stability to heat, light, water, metals, etc.?
3. Is it impact sensitive? Is it toxic? If so, what type of hazard will exist? What protective measures are required?
4. What is the recommended first aid treatment in case of an accidental exposure?
5. Will the reaction be violent? What are the effects of catalysts or inhibitors? Will water or air affect the reaction?
6. What will happen and what should be done if electric power fails, cooling system fails, pressure gets out of hand, water leaks into system, air leaks into system, the reaction container fails and breaks or spills contents, or a fire starts?

M. Required Prior Approvals

Prior approval for any operation outside the purview of normal operations being conducted in that specific laboratory facility must be obtained in advance by the laboratory supervisor. This approval process should be documented. Any time new procedures/operations are introduced, the laboratory worker must be trained in the new procedures, especially if a new chemical will be involved.


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VI. PROCUREMENT/DISTRIBUTION/STORAGE

A. Procurement

Before a hazardous substance is received, information on proper handling, storage, and disposal should be known to those who will use it. No container should be accepted without an adequate identifying label. If possible, all substances should be received in a central location.

B. Storage Areas

Hazardous chemicals should be segregated into well-identified areas with proper ventilation. Highly toxic chemicals or other chemicals whose containers are opened or damaged should be in unbreakable secondary containers. Stored chemicals should be examined several times per year for deterioration, container integrity, and possible replacement. Storage areas should not be used for any other operations, should be accessible only during normal working hours, and only to those very few individual with a need to retrieve stored chemicals.

C. Storage Precautions

1.
Acids. Store large bottles on low shelves or in acid cabinets. Segregate oxidizing acids from organic acids, flammable and combustible materials. Segregate acids from bases and active metals such as sodium, potassium, and magnesium.
2. Bases. Segregate bases from acids. Store solutions of inorganic hydroxides in polyethylene containers.
3. Flammables. Store only in approved safety cans or cabinets. Segregate from oxidizing acids and oxidizers. Keep away from any source of ignition (flames, localized heat, or sparks). Store highly volatile flammable liquids in properly ventilated, cool storage areas.
4. Oxidizers. Store in a cool, dry place. Keep away from flammable and combustible materials such as paper and wood. Keep away from reducing agents such as zinc, alkaline metals, and formic acid.
5. Water reactive chemicals. Store in a cool, dry place. Post appropriate warning signs not to fight fire with water.
6. Pyrophorics. Store in a cool, dry place in airtight containers.
7. Peroxide formers. Store in airtight containers in a dark, cool, and dry place. Label containers with receiving, opening, and future disposal dates.
8. Carcinogens and teratogens. Store according to the hazard category of the chemical and ensure that all containers are labeled as such.

D. Transport

All chemicals must be transported securely on campus. Contact the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs for assistance.

E. Laboratory Storage

Amounts of solvents and chemicals stored in the laboratory working areas should be as small as possible. They should be stored in protected areas to avoid inadvertent spills or breakage. Exposure to heat or direct sunlight should be avoided. Unused or unneeded items should be discarded (as hazardous waste) or returned to the storage area.

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VII. SIGNS AND LABELS

A. Containers

Contact the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs for information.

B. Other Signs and Labels

Location signs for safety showers, eyewash stations, other safety and first aid equipment, exits, food and beverage consumption areas, and storage areas should be posted. Warning signs, denoting restricted areas or hazardous equipment are also required. The Chemical Hygiene Officer or the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs can assist in determining the proper type and placement of signs.


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VIII. EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO SPILLS AND ACCIDENTS

Contact the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs.
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IX. EMPLOYEE EXPOSURE DETERMINATION AND REDUCTION ACTIONS

A. Procedures
Initial monitoring of potential exposure of laboratory personnel to a hazardous substance is required only if the substance is regulated by a standard which requires monitoring AND if there is reason to believe that exposure levels for that substance are routinely exceeding the action level, TLV, or PEL, whichever is appropriate. If monitoring is initiated, it will be performed in accordance with the relevant standard. Laboratory workers will be informed of the results of any monitoring within 15 days after receipt of the data. Notification will be made in writing, either to the individual(s) concerned, or by posting results in an appropriate location that is accessible to the laboratory workers. All such monitoring will be coordinated through the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs.

B. Exposure Reduction Actions
As stated in earlier sections of this Plan, hoods, proper ventilation, equipment including clothing, personal hygiene, safety shields, glove boxes, and prudent work practices are all measures that can be taken to reduce probability of laboratory worker exposure. The CHO will make periodic checks of laboratory facilities, in particular the high-risk areas, to ensure that these actions are being implemented. It is recommended that the laboratory supervisor accompany the CHO whenever possible.


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X. FUME HOOD MANAGEMENT

Fume hoods and other associated protective equipment should be maintained in satisfactory operating condition at all times. Monitoring of performance and any scheduled preventive maintenance should by done in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Adequate hood performance should be confirmed before each use. Hoods should be kept closed at all times except when work is being performed or adjustments need to be made. Materials stored in the hood should be kept to a minimum and should not block vents or air flow.


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XI. INFORMATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM

A. Information
Information is provided to each new employee and student during their initial safety training provided by the CHO. This information is expanded, under the Chemical Hygiene Plan, to include:
1. The contents of this Plan and its appendices,
2. The location and availability of PEL data for OSHA regulated substances or recommended exposure limits for other hazardous chemicals where there is no exposure standard,
3. Signs and symptoms associated with exposure to hazardous chemicals used in the laboratory, and
4. The location and availability of known reference material on the hazards, safe handling, storage and disposal of hazardous chemicals found in VIMS/SMS laboratories to include the Safety Data Sheets (SDS).

B. Training
The initial training provided to all faculty, staff, and students will be accomplished through the use of lectures, discussions, videotapes, and other media and will include discussion of
1. Methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemical.
2. The physical and health hazards of chemicals in the work area.
3. Measures to provide protection from these hazards, including specific procedures such as appropriate work practices, emergency procedures, and personal protective equipment to be used.
Follow-up training will be provided by the laboratory supervisor or Principal Investigator responsible for the employee/student. This training should include, as a minimum, unique procedures to be followed in a specific laboratory, location of safety equipment, emergency procedures, and any other information pertinent to that laboratory. This training should be updated prior to new assignments involving different procedures or potential exposure to new hazardous chemicals and whenever a new hazard is introduced into the work area.


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XII. HOUSEKEEPING, MAINTENANCE, AND INSPECTIONS

A. Housekeeping
1. Each person is responsible for keeping his/her work area neat and orderly. All persons using community areas such as hoods, ovens, and balances should share responsibility for keeping those areas clean.
2. Floors, counter tops, etc. should be cleaned regularly. Laboratory benches, aisles, stairways, and hallways should not be used as storage areas. They should be cleared immediately after completion of each experiment. Compressed-gas cylinders never should be stored in commonly used hallways.
3. Access to exits, emergency equipment, and utility controls should never be blocked.
4. Laboratory apparatus should be assembled in a stable, orderly fashion.
5. All small spills (less than one liter) and leakages should be cleaned up immediately. Small acid spills can be neutralized with sodium carbonate and alkali spills with boric acid. However, all spills without regard to size must be reported to the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs to ensure proper cleanup and disposal of residue resulting from the cleanup.

B. Inspections

Formal housekeeping and chemical hygiene inspections should be held semi-annually. Informal records of these inspections should be maintained by the laboratory supervisor. The format and content of the inspection and record is determined by the laboratory supervisor. Informal inspections should be conducted as often as possible.

C. Maintenance

Safety equipment such as eye wash fountains, safety showers, respirators, and other protective equipment should be tested routinely. All maintenance should be performed in a timely manner at any time a defect is discovered. The level of maintenance support is dependent on the extent of the maintenance defect.


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XIII. MEDICAL PROGRAM

A. General

All employees working with hazardous chemicals will be provided an opportunity to receive medical attention, including any follow-up examinations which the examining physician determines to be necessary, under the following conditions:
1. Whenever the employee develops signs or symptoms associated with a hazardous chemical to which the employee may have been exposed in the laboratory.
2. When exposure monitoring reveals an exposure level routinely above the action level (or PEL) for an OSHA regulated substance for which there are exposure monitoring and medical surveillance requirements.
3. Whenever an event takes place in the work area such as a spill, leak, explosion, or other occurrence resulting in the likelihood of a hazardous exposure.

All medical examinations and consultations shall be performed by or under the direct supervision of a licensed physician and shall be provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay, and at a reasonable time and place.

B. Emergency Medical Assistance

The Abingdon Volunteer Rescue Squad, Inc. (AVRS) provides emergency medical service to the area of Gloucester County in which VIMS/SMS is located. During most working hours the rescue squad can be contacted through the VIMS central switchboard, extension 7000 or 7001. At all times, theGloucester County Emergency Dispatcher can be contacted directly by dialing 9- 911 (that is 9 for external access from VIMS/SMS phones and 911). Should the patient be contaminated with any chemical, especially any hazardous substances, it is imperative that the dispatcher be so informed in the initial call and the rescue squad members be informed at the time of their arrival on scene. 

C. Medical Information

Whenever an employee is referred to a physician under this Chemical Hygiene Plan, the physician should be provided with the following information
1. The identity of the hazardous chemical(s) to which the employee may have been exposed, including, if possible a copy of the SDS,
2. A description of the conditions under which the exposure occurred including quantitative exposure data, if available, and
3. A description of the signs and symptoms of exposure that the employee is experiencing, if any.

D. Physician's Written Opinion

The written opinion from the examining physician shall include:
1. Any recommendation for further medical follow-up,
2. The results of the medical examination and any associated tests,
3. Any medical condition which may be revealed in the course of the examination which may place the employee at increased risk as a result of exposure to a hazardous chemical found in the work place, and
4. A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the results of the consultation or medical examination and any medical condition that may require further examination or treatment.

This written opinion shall not reveal any specific findings of diagnoses not related to the occupational exposure.

E. Record keeping

Accurate records shall be maintained by the CHO of any measurements taken to monitor employee exposures and medical consultation/examinations including tests or written opinions required by this Plan. Information copies will be provided upon request to the Workers' Compensation Program representative.


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XIV. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

A. General

Any personal protective equipment (PPE) required, such as clothing, gloves, respirators, or goggles, will be provided at no cost to the employee. PPE will be compatible with the hazardous chemical being handled. The SDS provides information as the type of PPE to be used. Actual selection may vary depending on availability of other equipment such as fume hoods, ventilation systems, etc. Assistance in selecting and in training the individual on the use and care of the PPE will be provided by the CHO on request.

Other equipment such as safety showers, eyewash fountains, decontamination material, fire extinguishers, alarms, fire blankets, etc., shall be requested as needed using normal purchasing procedures. Necessary funds for these materials, and any other safety related items, should be included in the contract or grant budgets and the normal operating budgets of the research or service departments.

B. Respirators

Where the use of respirators is necessary to maintain exposure below the PEL, they shall be provided at no cost to the employee and selected based on the specific hazardous chemicals being used. Procedures for selection of the proper respirator and subsequent qualitative/quantitative fit testing are described in the VIMS/SMS Respirator Protection Plan. 

C. Eye Protection

Eye protection for laboratory workers is of such importance that all persons working directly with hazardous chemicals in the laboratory must have eye protection of some type. This may include safety glasses, safety goggles, face shields, exhaust hoods, or protective shatterproof shields. The only exceptions to wearing eye protection are as follows:

1. At the discretion of the Department Head, persons working at their desks in lab areas or adjacent to lab benches need not wear eye protection.

2. In offices removed from likely contact with laboratory materials.

3. Specialized laboratories (such as the SAV lab) as designated by the Department Head.


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XV. WASTE DISPOSAL

Only some materials may be disposed of in lab sinks and then only in small quantity. This should be done by pouring slowly into a steady stream of water and flushing down the drain with a large quantity of water. Any exceptions to these procedures must be approved by the laboratory supervisor, Department Head, and the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs. The type and quantity of chemical waste allowed in the various waste streams is limited by several regulations. Violations of those limits, whether accidental or willful, could have severe legal or financial consequences for VIMS/SMS and for the individual.

Information on the materials allowed in the various waste streams is available from the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs. The information includes the VPDES permits for the sea-water discharges and the requirements imposed by the Hampton Roads Sanitation District.


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XVI. REVIEW AND UPDATE

Review of this Plan will be coordinated by the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs on an occasional basis through a formal request for comments from VIMS/SMS faculty, staff, and students. Emergent changes that cannot be held until a formal review due to their potentially adverse impact if not promulgated in a timely manner shall be distributed as necessary. Suggestions and proposed draft inputs from all VIMS/SMS personnel are welcome at any time.


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XVII. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

The Office of Safety and Environmental Programs maintains a file of SDS for all materials on campus in addition to the file that is to be maintained by each work area. The Office either has or can obtain additional information on specific materials on request.

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XVIII. GLOSSARY

Action Level A - concentration designated in 29 CFR part 1910 for a specific substance, calculated as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average, which initiates certain required activities such as exposure monitoring and medical surveillance.

Allergen Substance - causing altered body reactivity to a toxic substance in response to a first exposure.

Chemical Hygiene Officer - an employee designated by the employer, qualified by training or experience to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the Chemical Hygiene Plan.

Chronic - long term degenerative effect of a hazardous substance marked by frequent recurrence over a long period of time.

Designated Area - an area which may be used for work with select carcinogens, reproductive toxins, or highly acute toxic substances. A designated area may be the entire laboratory or a device such as a lab hood.

Embroytoxin  - see Reproductive Toxin.

Glove Box - a sealed, protectively lined compartment, having ports to which are attached gloves for use in handling materials inside the compartment.

Hazardous Chemical - any chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. This includes select carcinogens, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, and other substances which may damage lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.

Highly Acute Toxic - any hazardous chemical with a short term health effect which could be fatal or cause damage to target organs as a result of a single exposure or several exposures of short duration.

Laboratory Facility - any facility/room/location/area where hazardous chemicals are used. It is a workplace where relatively small amounts are used on a non-production basis.

Laboratory Worker - an individual employed in a laboratory facility who may be exposed to hazardous chemicals in the course of his/her work. This includes individuals who, because of their work assignment, may be required to enter a laboratory facility. OSHA considers maintenance and custodial personnel as meeting this definition, but not occasional visitors such as guests or sales persons.

Oxidizer - a chemical that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials, thereby causing fire either of itself or through the release of oxygen or other gases.

Oxidizing agent - oxygen-containing material which can decompose, generating oxygen.

Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) - permissible exposure to a hazardous substance based on a measurement of an 8-hour time weighted average, established by OSHA.

Reactivity - the proclivity of a compound to chemically react with other substances or itself, resulting in the liberation of energy. Can cause the formation of toxic or corrosive materials, pressure build up, and temperature fluctuations.

Reproductive Toxin - any chemical which affects the reproductive capabilities including chromosomal damage (mutagens), lethal effects on the fertilized egg, developing embryo, or fetus (embryotoxin), and malformation of the fetus (terataogens).

Select Carcinogen - any substance regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen, listed under the category "known to be a carcinogen" in the Annual Report on Carcinogens published by the National Toxicology Program, listed under Group 1 (carcinogen to humans) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs (IARC), listed in either Group 2A or 2B by IARC, or under the category "reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens" by the National Toxicology Program and causes statistically significant tumor incidence in experimental animals.

Teratogen - see Reproductive Toxin.

TLV Threshold Limit Value (TLV) - a time weighted average air concentration based on an 8-hour day, established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Very similar to PEL.

Water Reactive - a chemical that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.

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APPENDIX A
Protocol Outline for the Use of
Particularly Hazardous Substances (PHS)

DATE:

1. Project director or Principal Investigator's name:

2. Experience. Summary of prior training and experience :


3. Personnel participating the work and their prior training and experience:


4. Identification of particularly hazardous substance. ( Attach SDS):

Full chemical name CAS #

5. Health hazard data:

OSHA (PEL):
ACGIH (TLV-TWA):
OSHA (STEL):
NIOSH (REL): 

5.1  Routes of exposure: 



5.2  Effects of overexposure (chronic and acute)



6. Standard operating procedures
6.1  Maximum quantity to be purchased or stored:

6.2  Designated area where material will be stored and handled:

6.3  Ventilation provisions:

6.4  Special weighing areas to be used:

6.5  Weighing techniques that will be used:

6.6  Experimental procedures:

6.7  Amounts expected to be used per month or week:

6.8  Solvents to be used:

6.9  Where the experiment is to be conducted (e.g. hood, glove box):

6.10  All designated areas. Where each part of the procedure will be conducted:

6.11  A summary of the rational for using this hazardous substance:


7. Safety precautions that will be taken.

7.1  Include personal protective equipment, ventilation requirements, any analytical methods available for monitoring possible exposure levels:

7.2  Emergency procedures including first aid procedure for eye or skin contact, inhalation, and ingestion:


7.3  Spill and leak cleanup requirements should be outlined with an emphasis on personal protective equipment required for clean up of each of the possible physical states of the materials (liquid or solid).


8. Waste management and deactivation/disposal procedures:


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APPENDIX B

Formaldehyde Program

I. INTRODUCTION

A. Purpose

The purpose of the formaldehyde program is to establish procedures/guidelines to protect the health and safety of all persons in the Virginia Institute of Marine Science/School of Marine Science (VIMS/SMS) community who may be occupationally exposed to formaldehyde gas, its solutions, and/or materials that release formaldehyde. The Virginia Occupational Safety and Health Administration (VOSH) has issued a standard to assure proper protection of all workers exposed to formaldehyde. VOSH has established a permissible exposure limit of 0.75 parts formaldehyde per million parts of air (0.75 ppm) as an 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) and a short-term exposure limit (STEL) of two parts formaldehyde per million parts of air (2 ppm) in a 15-minute period.

The Formaldehyde Program consists of methods to be used to minimize possible workplace exposures to formaldehyde and to monitor the exposures and procedures and actions to be followed should exposures exceed specific levels or should there be a spill.

B. SCOPE AND APPLICATION

This program applies to all persons (faculty, staff, students, and visitors) in work areas under the operation or management of VIMS/SMS who may have an exposure to formaldehyde. Each operational area has specific requirements for monitoring formaldehyde and the areas are monitored periodically to accurately determine exposure concentrations. It is the policy of the VIMS/SMS to ensure that formaldehyde is handled in the safest possible manner and in compliance with all applicable codes and standards.


C. DEFINITIONS

Formaldehyde: The chemical formaldehyde (HCHO) has an irritating pungent odor and is classified as an upper respiratory irritant because of its high solubility in water. Formaldehyde is used in a variety of operations but tissue preservation is the primary source of exposure within the VIMS community. See the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for additional information.

PEL (Permissible Exposure Limit): The maximum permissible airborne concentration of formaldehyde to which any employee may be exposed. The PEL is published and enforced by VOSH as a legal standard. The PEL for formaldehyde is 0.75 ppm.

Action-Level: The exposure level below which respiratory protection and many other requirements of the Formaldehyde Standard need not be implemented. The current action level for formaldehyde is 0.5 ppm 8-hour TWA.

STEL (Short-Term Exposure Limit): The maximum concentration of formaldehyde to which workers can be exposed continuously over a period of 15 minutes. The STEL for formaldehyde currently is 2.0 ppm.

TLV/TWA (Threshold Limit Value/Time Weighted Average): The time weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek, to which it is believed nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, without adverse effect. These values are published yearly by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

Time Weighted Average (TWA): The actual measured exposure level averaged over an 8-hour time period.



II. EXPOSURE MONITORING

Employees in work areas of VIMS/SMS which may involve exposure to formaldehyde are monitored periodically to accurately determine exposure concentrations. Representative monitoring will be conducted to determine employee short-term and full-shift exposures to formaldehyde. Every employee need not be measured if a "high" exposure employee can be identified. TWA measurements shall be determined primarily through the use of Kem Medical Corporation VAPOR-TRAK Formaldehyde passive dosimeters for personal samples and the Lion Formaldemeter Mark II for area monitoring of ambient concentrations. (Comparable systems may be substituted at the discretion of the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs.) Formaldehyde levels for the Kem Medical VAPOR-TRAK Passive dosimeters will be determined by NIOSH methods by Kem Medical's Laboratory in Farmingdale, New York. If the formaldehyde monitoring indicates a TWA above 0.5 ppm (the "action" level) then the area supervisor will be contacted and recommendations made to reduce employee exposure. In addition, if the action level is exceeded, development of a written exposure control plan describing the corrective actions that are being taken to reduce employee exposures is required. Every effort should be made by the area supervisor and by the exposed personnel to reduce exposure levels to below 0.5 ppm. If there are tasks that involve brief but intense exposures to formaldehyde, employee exposures must be measured to assure compliance with the STEL. Sample collections are for brief periods (15 minutes) but several samples may be needed to identify the peak exposure.

Monitoring will be conducted by the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs in such manner as to be representative of the 8-hour TWA of each employee. Representative 8-hour TWA employee exposures shall be determined on the basis of one or more samples representing full-shift exposure for each shift for each job classification in each work area. The frequency of such monitoring is required as follows:

. Initially, wherever there may be exposure by employees above the PEL to establish a baseline exposure level.
. Whenever there is a change in processes, equipment, personnel or control measures which may result in new or additional exposure to formaldehyde.
. Semiannually, whenever the most recent monitoring result reveals a TWA exposure above the 0.5 ppm action level.
. Annually, whenever the most recent monitoring result reveals employee exposure at or above the STEL.

Semiannual and annual monitoring, as specified above, are not required when two consecutive formaldehyde monitoring sessions which have been executed at least 7 calendar days apart and both indicate TWA and/or STEL exposures below 0.5 ppm and/or 2.0 ppm, respectively.

TWA levels measured to be in excess of 0.5 ppm are considered to remain above this level until 2 consecutive monitoring periods performed at least 7 calendar days apart confirm that the exposure concentration has dropped to below 0.5 ppm.


III. REPORTING MONITORING RESULTS

The area supervisor shall report the results of all formaldehyde monitoring to the affected person(s) within 15 calendar days of the date on which the area supervisor receives the results. Notification must be in writing, either by distributing copies of the results of the exposure monitoring to the affected (those conducting the same job tasks) employees or by posting the results. Results should be posted for a minimum of three days. Once the results have been reviewed by all affected employees, a copy should be filed with the Department's copies of both the VIMS/SMS Occupational Safety and Health Plan and this document. If the PEL has been exceeded, affected employees must be notified, in writing, of the corrective action being taken.

TWA measurements may be taken at any time, at the discretion of the area supervisor or the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs. If monitoring results indicate that either the PEL or the STEL has been exceeded, the use of respirators and/or other protective equipment is required by all personnel in the area, as soon as the report is received. (NOTE: Gloves, goggles, face shields, and other protective clothing may be necessary at much lower exposure levels.) VOSH specifies full-facepiece respirators with cartridges specifically approved for formaldehyde exposure. The Office of Safety and Environmental Programs will provide assistance in selection of protective clothing and equipment based upon the form of formaldehyde to be encountered, the condition of use, and the hazard to be prevented. The VIMS/SMS shall provide these protective devices to the employee at no cost to the employee and assure that the employee wears them. The rotation of employees in order to lower formaldehyde exposure levels is prohibited by VOSH. If the use of respirators is required, the policies and procedures specified in the VIMS/SMS Respiratory Protection Plan must be followed.


IV. MEDICAL REMOVAL

If an employee reports significant irritation of the mucosa of the eyes or of the upper airways, respiratory sensitization, dermal irritation, or dermal sensitization attributed to workplace formaldehyde exposure, then he/she should be evaluated by a physician. If the physician finds that significant irritation is the result of workplace formaldehyde exposure and recommends restrictions or removal, the employer must promptly comply. The employer must remove the affected employee from the current formaldehyde exposure and transfer the employee to other work having no or significantly less exposure to formaldehyde. The employee should not be required to incur any direct expense for the medical evaluation nor should the employee be required to lose pay for the time required for the medical evaluation.



V. INFORMATION AND TRAINING

All employees exposed to formaldehyde concentrations of 0.1 ppm or greater must receive training annually. The training program shall be conducted in a manner in which the employee is able to understand and shall include the following information:

1. The requirements of the VOSH regulations concerning formaldehyde (29 CFR 1910.1048) and a discussion of the material safety data sheet.

2. A description of the operations in the work area where formaldehyde is present and an explanation of the safe work practices appropriate for limiting the exposure to formaldehyde.

3. A description of the potential health hazards associated with an exposure to formaldehyde and a description of the signs and symptoms of an exposure to formaldehyde. As a minimum, specific health hazards include: cancer, irritation and sensitization of the skin and respiratory system, eye and throat irritation, and acute toxicity.

4. A discussion of monitoring and other methods used to detect the presence of formaldehyde in the work area.

5. The measures employees must take to protect themselves from hazards associated with formaldehyde exposure. The purpose for, proper use of, and limitations of the required personal protective clothing and equipment.

6. The purpose for and a description of the medical surveillance program required by the standard. A medical surveillance program is required for all employees exposed to formaldehyde at concentrations at or exceeding the action level or exceeding the STEL. Medical surveillance is also required during the following instances:
. Whenever an employee develops signs and symptoms of an overexposure to formaldehyde.
. Whenever an employee is exposed to formaldehyde during an emergency.
. Whenever requested by an employee's examining physician.

7. A review of emergency procedures for the handling of spills, emergencies, and clean-up.

8. An explanation of the importance of engineering and work practice controls for employee protection and any necessary instruction in the use of these controls.



VI. ENGINEERING CONTROLS

Ventilation is the most widely applied engineering control method used for reducing the concentration of airborne substances in the breathing zones of workers. Either local exhaust ventilation or general dilution ventilation should be used for this purpose whenever possible. Work practices and administrative procedures are also an important part of a control system. If an employee is asked to perform a task in a certain manner to limit the exposure to formaldehyde, it is extremely important that the recommended procedures are followed.

If it is determined that there are areas where the concentration of airborne formaldehyde exceeds either the TWA or the STEL, VIMS/SMS will regulate those areas and post and maintain legible signs bearing the following information at all entrances or access ways:




DANGER

FORMALDEHYDE

IRRITANT AND POTENTIAL CANCER HAZARD

AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY



VII. LEAK, SPILL, AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

Small spills should be cleaned up with absorbent material and placed into properly labeled containers for later disposal. The Chemical Hygiene Officer or other representative of the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs must be informed. In an area where a large amount of formaldehyde could be released from an accident, the supervisor should develop an emergency plan assigning tasks to specific individuals and specifying procedures to be followed in the event of an emergency.

Should it be determined that a large leak or spill has occurred, the area should be evacuated immediately except for those individuals who have specific emergency duties. While leaving the area, lab personnel should shut off all ignition sources, if this can be done without risk. No one without specific training and personal protective equipment should touch the spill or attempt to clean it up. Persons designated in the lab's emergency plan should isolate any hazard area and deny entry except for necessary personnel protected by suitable protective clothing and respirators adequate for the exposure. The Office of Safety and Environmental Programs should be contacted immediately either by direct telephone call, through the VIMS/SMS telephone console operator, or by pager. A message left on an answering machine or a voice-mail system is not sufficient, specific contact with a person is essential. Often this can best be accomplished by calling the Central Telephone Console attendant and asking her to contact the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs.

Individuals with a potentially excessive exposure to formaldehyde should have prompt medical attention and evaluation. Eye and skin irritation and respirator distress are symptoms of formaldehyde exposure. If there is any concern about the severity of the medical problem, the rescue squad should be called to transport the individual to an emergency facility. Quoting section XIII B of the VIMS/SMS Chemical Hygiene Plan.

The Abingdon Volunteer Rescue Squad, Inc. (AVRS) provides emergency medical service to the area of Gloucester county in which VIMS/SMS is located. During most working hours the rescue squad can be contacted through the VIMS central switchboard, extension 7000 or 7001. At all times, the Gloucester County Emergency Dispatcher can be contacted directly by dialing 9-911 (that is 9 for external access from VIM/SMS phones and 911). Should the patient be contaminated with any chemical, especially any hazardous substance, it is imperative that the dispatcher be so informed in the initial call and the rescue squad members be informed at the time of their arrival on the scene. Normal emergency request procedures are used to request assistance and are further described in VIMS/SMS Occupational Safety and Health Plan.


VIII. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Additional information on the possible health effects of formaldehyde or on any aspect of the VIMS/SMS Occupational Health & Safety Program for Formaldehyde, the overall Occupational Safety and Health Plan is available from the Office of Safety and Environmental Programs.

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